Detecting dangers in dairy: What gases should you be aware of? 

Global demand for dairy continues to increase in large part due to population growth, rising incomes and urbanisation. Millions of farmers worldwide tend approximately 270 million dairy cows to produce milk. Throughout the dairy farm industry there are a variety of gas hazards that pose a risk to those working in the dairy industry.  

What are the dangers workers face in the dairy industry?

Chemicals

Throughout the dairy farm industry, chemicals are used for variety of tasks including cleaning, applying various treatments such as vaccinations or medications, antibiotics, sterilising and spraying. If these chemicals and hazardous substances are not used or stored correctly, this can result in serious harm to the worker or the surrounding environment. Not only can these chemicals cause illness, but there is also a risk of death if a person is exposed. Some chemicals can be flammable and explosive whilst others are corrosive and poisonous. 

There are several ways to manage these chemical hazards, although the main concern should be in implementing a process and procedure. This procedure should ensure all staff are trained in the safe use of chemicals with records being maintained. As part of the chemical procedure, this should include a chemical manifest for tracking purposes. This type of inventory management allows for all personal to have access to Safety Data Sheets (SDS) as well as usage and location records. Alongside this manifest, there should be consideration for the review of current operation.  

  • What is the current procedure?  
  • What PPE is required?  
  • What is the process for discarding out of date chemicals and is there is a substitute chemical that could pose less of a risk to your workers? 

Confined Spaces

There are numerous circumstances that could require a worker to enter a confined space, including feed silos, milk vats, water tanks and pits in the dairy industry. The safest way to eliminate a confined space hazard, as mentioned by many industry bodies, is to employ a safe design. This will include the removal of any need to enter a confined space. Although, this may not be realistic and from time to time, cleaning routines need to take place, or a blockage may occur, however, there is a requirement to ensure there is the correct procedures to address the hazard. 

Chemical agents when used in a confined space can increase the risk of suffocation with gases pushing out oxygen. One way you can eliminate this risk is by cleaning the vat from the outside using a high-pressure hose. If a worker does need to enter the confined space, check that the correct signage is in place since entry and exit points will be restricted. You should consider isolation switches and check that your staff understand the correct emergency rescue procedure if something were to happen. 

Gas Hazards

Ammonia (NH3) is found in animal waste and slurry spreading on farming and agricultural land. It is characteristically a colourless gas with a pungent smell that arises through the decomposition of nitrogen compounds in animal waste. Not only is it harmful to human health but also harmful to livestock wellbeing, due to its ability to cause respiratory diseases in livestock, and eye irritation, blindness, lung damage, alongside nose and throat damage and even death in humans. Ventilation is a key requirement in preventing health issues, as poor ventilation heightens the damage caused by this gas.  

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is naturally produced in the atmosphere; although, levels are increased through farming and agricultural processes. CO2, is colourless, odourless, and is emitted from agricultural equipment, crop and livestock production and other farming processes. CO2 can congregate areas, such as waste tanks and silos. This results in oxygen in the air to be displaced and increasing the risk of suffocation for animals and humans.  Sealed silos, waste and grain storage spaces are specifically dangerous as CO2 can accumulate here and lead to them being unsuitable for humans without an external air supply. 

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), is one of a group of highly reactive gases known as oxides of nitrogen or nitrogen oxides (NOx). At worst, it can cause sudden death when consumed even from short term exposure. This gas can cause suffocation and is emitted from silos following specific chemical reactions of plant material. It is recognisable by its bleach-like smell and its properties tend to create a red-brown haze. As it gathers above certain surfaces it can run into areas with livestock through silo chutes, and therefore poses a real danger to humans and animals in the surrounding area. It can also affect lung function, cause internal bleeding, and ongoing respiratory problems. 

When should gas detectors be used?

Gas detectors provide added value anywhere on dairy farms and around slurry silos, but above all: 

  • When and where slurry is being mixed 
  • During pumping and bringing out slurry
  • On and around the tractor during slurry mixing or spreading 
  • In the stable during maintenance work on slurry pumps, slurry scrapers and the like 
  • Near and around small openings and cracks in the floor, e.g., around milking robots 
  • Low to the ground in poorly ventilated corners and spaces (H2S is heavier than air and sinks to the floor) 
  • In slurry silos 
  • In slurry tanks 

Products that can help to protect yourself 

Gas detection can be provided in both fixed and portable forms. Installation of a fixed gas detector can benefit a larger space to provide continuous area and staff protection 24 hours a day. However, a portable detector can be more suited for worker’s safety. 

To find out more on the dangers in agriculture and farming, visit our industry page for more information. 

Carbon Dioxide: What are the dangers in the Food and Beverage Industry? 

Almost all industries must monitor gas hazards, with the food and beverage industry no exception. Although, there is a lack of awareness regarding the dangers of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the dangers those working in the industry face. CO2 is the most common gas in the food and beverage industry because it is used in the carbonation of drinks, to propel beverages to the tap in pubs and restaurants and to keep food items cold during transportation in the form of dry ice. It is also naturally produced in beverage manufacturing processes by leavening agents like yeast and sugar. Although CO2 may seem harmless at first glance as we exhale it with every breath, and plants need it for survival, the presence of carbon dioxide becomes a problem when its concentration rises to dangerous levels.

The Dangers of CO2

Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in the atmosphere (typically 0.04% in air). CO2 is colourless and odourless, heavier than air, and tends to sink to the floor. CO2 collects in cellars and at the bottom of containers and confined spaces such as tanks or silos.

Since CO2 is heavier than air, it quickly displaces oxygen at high concentrations can result in asphyxiation due to a lack of oxygen or breathable air. Exposure to CO2 is easy, especially in a confined space like a tank or a cellar. Early symptoms of exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide include dizziness, headaches, and confusion, followed by loss of consciousness. Accidents and fatalities occur in the food and beverage industry due to a carbon dioxide leak. Without proper detection methods and processes in place, everyone at a facility could be at risk.

Gas Monitors – what are the benefits?

Any application that uses carbon dioxide puts workers at risk, and the only way to identify high levels before it’s too late is to use gas monitors.

Gas detection can be provided in both fixed and portable forms. Installation of a fixed gas detector can benefit a larger space such as plant rooms to provide continuous area and staff protection 24 hours a day. However, a portable detector can be more suited for worker safety in and around the cylinder storage area and in spaces designated as a confined space. This is especially true for pubs and beverage dispensing outlets for the safety of workers and those unfamiliar with the environment, such as delivery drivers, sales teams or equipment technicians. The portable unit can easily be clipped to clothing and will detect pockets of CO2 using alarms and visual signals, indicating that the user should immediately vacate the area.

Personal gas detectors continuously monitor the air in workers’ breathing zone when worn correctly,  to give them better awareness and the information they need to make smart decisions in the face of danger. Not only can gas monitors detect carbon dioxide in the air, but they can also alert others if an employee is in danger. Carbon dioxide can be monitored using a single gas monitor or by using a multi-gas monitor with a dedicated carbon dioxide sensor. It is important to note the carbon dioxide can escalate to dangerous levels before an oxygen sensor would alarm.

Gold Mining: What gas detection do I need? 

How is gold mined?

Gold is a rare substance equating to 3 parts per billion of the earth’s outer layer, with most of the world’s available gold coming from Australia. Gold, like iron, copper and lead, is a metal. There are two primary forms of gold mining, including open-cut and underground mining. Open mining involves earth-moving equipment to remove waste rock from the ore body above, and then mining is conducted from the remaining substance. This process requires waste and ore to be struck at high volumes to break the waste and ore into sizes suitable for handling and transportation to both waste dumps and ore crushers. The other form of gold mining is the more traditional underground mining method. This is where vertical shafts and spiral tunnels transport workers and equipment into and out of the mine, providing ventilation and hauling the waste rock and ore to the surface.

Gas detection in mining

When relating to gas detection, the process of health and safety within mines has developed considerably over the past century, from morphing from the crude usage of methane wick wall testing, singing canaries and flame safety to modern-day gas detection technologies and processes as we know them. Ensuring the correct type of detection equipment is utilised, whether fixed or portable, before entering these spaces. Proper equipment utilisation will ensure gas levels are accurately monitored, and workers are alerted to dangerous concentrations within the atmosphere at the earliest opportunity.

What are the gas hazards and what are the dangers?

The dangers those working within the mining industry face several potential occupational hazards and diseases, and the possibility of fatal injury. Therefore, understanding the environments and hazards, they may be exposed to is important.

Oxygen (O2)

Oxygen (O2), usually present in the air at 20.9%, is essential to human life. There are three main reasons why oxygen poses a threat to workers within the mining industry. These include oxygen deficiencies or enrichment, as too little oxygen can prevent the human body from functioning leading to the worker losing consciousness. Unless the oxygen level can be restored to an average level, the worker is at risk of potential death. An atmosphere is deficient when the concentration of O2 is less than 19.5%. Consequently, an environment with too much oxygen is equally dangerous as this constitutes a greatly increased risk of fire and explosion. This is considered when the concentration level of O2 is over 23.5%

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

In some cases, high concentrations of Carbon Monoxide (CO) may be present. Environments that this may occur include a house fire, therefore the fire service are at risk of CO poisoning. In this environment there can be as much as 12.5% CO in the air which when the carbon monoxide rises to the ceiling with other combustion products and when the concentration hits 12.5% by volume this will only lead to one thing, called a flashover. This is when the whole lot ignites as a fuel. Apart from items falling on the fire service, this is one of the most extreme dangers they face when working inside a burning building. Due to the characteristics of CO being so hard to identify, I.e., colourless, odourless, tasteless, poisonous gas, it may take time for you to realise that you have CO poisoning. The effects of CO can be dangerous, this is because CO prevents the blood system from effectively carrying oxygen around the body, specifically to vital organs such as the heart and brain. High doses of CO, therefore, can cause death from asphyxiation or lack of oxygen to the brain. According to statistics from the Department of Health, the most common indication of CO poisoning is that of a headache with 90% of patients reporting this as a symptom, with 50% reporting nausea and vomiting, as well as vertigo. With confusion/changes in consciousness, and weakness accounting for 30% and 20% of reports.

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a colourless, flammable gas with a characteristic odour of rotten eggs. Skin and eye contact may occur. However, the nervous system and cardiovascular system are most affected by hydrogen sulphide, which can lead to a range of symptoms. Single exposures to high concentrations may rapidly cause breathing difficulties and death.

Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) can cause several harmful effects on the respiratory systems, in particular the lung. It can also cause skin irritation. Skin contact with (SO2) causes stinging pain, redness of the skin and blisters. Skin contact with compressed gas or liquid can cause frostbite. Eye contact causes watering eyes and, in severe cases, blindness can occur.

Methane (CH4)

Methane (CH4) is a colourless, highly flammable gas with a primary component being that of natural gas. High levels of (CH4) can reduce the amount of oxygen breathed from the air, which can result in mood changes, slurred speech, vision problems, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, facial flushing and headache. In severe cases, there may be changes in breathing and heart rate, balance problems, numbness, and unconsciousness. Although, if exposure is for a longer period, it can result in fatality.

Hydrogen (H2)

Hydrogen Gas is a colourless, odourless, and tasteless gas which is lighter than air. As it is lighter than air this means it float higher than our atmosphere, meaning it is not naturally found, but instead must be created. Hydrogen poses a fire or explosion risk as well as an inhalation risk. High concentrations of this gas can cause an oxygen-deficient environment. Individuals breathing such an atmosphere may experience symptoms which include headaches, ringing in ears, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness, nausea, vomiting and depression of all the senses

Ammonia (NH3)

Ammonia (NH3) is one of the most widely used chemicals globally that is produced both in the human body and in nature. Although it is naturally created (NH3) is corrosive which poses a serve concern for health. High exposure within the air can result in immediate burning to the eyes, nose, throat and respiratory tract. Serve cases can result in blindness.

Other gas risks

Whilst Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) doesn’t persist within the environment, improper storage, handling and waste management can pose severe risk to human health as well as effects on the environment. Cyanide interferes with human respiration at cellular levels that can cause serve and acute effects, including rapid breathing, tremors, asphyxiation.

Diesel particulate exposure can occur in underground mines as a result of diesel-powered mobile equipment used for drilling and haulage. Although control measures include the use of low sulphur diesel fuel, engine maintenance and ventilation, health implication includes excess risk of lung cancer.

Products that can help to protect yourself

Crowcon provide a range of gas detection including both portable and fixed products all of which are suitable for gas detection within the mining industry.

To find out more visit our industry page here.

Our Partnership with Altitude Safety

Background

Altitude Safety has developed into one of the UK’s leading Confined Space and Site Safety Equipment suppliers. Supplying a product portfolio of over 10,000 products from the leading global manufacturers and with their dedicated fleet, Altitude Safety can deliver your safety solutions nationwide. Altitude Safety is part of the Citrus Group and has a client base of more than 35,000, thereby offering truly extensive and multifaceted provision. The Group aims to keep focused on Safety Equipment, Education and Training whilst also providing an effective and complete safety and training solution trusted by industries worldwide.

Views on Gas Detection

Providing both portable and fixed systems allows Altitude Safety’s customers to have a full solution option best suited to their needs and requirements. In regard to portable gas detection being a critical piece of safety equipment, Altitude Safety put customers at the forefront of gas detection, providing equipment in gas detection that not only protects their customers plants and processes but, more importantly, helps to prevent injury, thereby helping to ensure the health, safety, and wellbeing of its workers. Also, with the supply of fixed gas detection, Altitude Safety can offer its customers a complete turnkey solution for both new and replacement systems. Altitude Safety ensures the customers’ requirements through complete site surveys to provide advice on the best location of sensor heads, cable runs, and control panels. Whilst also offering a complete service from supply, installation, commissioning, and ongoing service/calibration contracts.

Maintaining and servicing safety products is key to ensuring that it remains in tip-top condition and ultimately works correctly at the critical time. Their manufacture approved service centre is operated via a team of dedicated and manufacturer-trained technicians. From receipt into our warehouse, Altitude Safety prides itself in being meticulously careful with the products ensuring that they are maintained, serviced and packaged correctly, ready for their customers to get back to operating as soon as possible.

Working with Crowcon

Through continuous communication of knowledge and expertise with Altitude Safety, our partnership has allowed for the supply of gas detection instruments for those working in the confined space and utility industries. “Our partnership with Crowcon has allowed us to provide a full turnkey solution for our customers and qualified service centres. We can provide a critical safety product to a range of industries, environments and workers to ensure safety for those involved”.

T4x a Compliance 4-gas monitor 

It is vital to ensure that the gas sensor you employ is fully optimised and reliable in the detection and accurate measurement of flammable gas and vapours, whatever environment or workplace it is within, is of the utmost importance. 

Fixed or portable? 

Gas detectors come in a range of different forms, most commonly they are known as fixed, portable or transportable, in which these devices are designed to meet the needs of the user and environment whilst protecting the safety of those within it.  

Fixed detectors are implemented as permanent fixtures within an environment to provide ongoing monitoring of plant and equipment. According to guidance from the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) these types of sensors are particularly helpful where there is the possibility of a leak into an enclosed or partially enclosed space which could lead to the accumulation of flammable gases. The International Gas Carrier Code (IGC Code) states that gas detection equipment should be installed to monitor the integrity of the environment that it is to monitor and should be tested in accordance with the recognised standards. This is to ensure that the fixed gas detection system operates effectively, timely and accurate calibration of the sensors is critical. 

Portable detectors normally come as a small, handheld device that can be used within smaller environments, confined spaces, to trace leaks or early warnings to the presence of flammable gas and vapour within hazardous areas. Transportable detectors are not handheld, but they are easily moved from place to place to act as a monitor ‘stand-in’ whilst a fixed sensor is undergoing maintenance. 

What is a compliance 4-gas monitor? 

Gas sensors are primarily optimised for detecting specific gases or vapours through design or calibration. It is desirable that a toxic gas sensor, for example one detecting carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulphide, provides an accurate indication of the target gas concentration rather than a response to another interfering compound. Personal safety monitors often combine several sensors for protecting the user against specific gas risks. However, a ‘Compliance 4-Gas monitor’ comprises sensors for measuring levels of carbon monoxide (CO) hydrogen sulphide (H2S), oxygen (O2) and flammable gases; normally methane (CH4) in one device.  

The T4x monitor with the ground-breaking MPS™ sensor is able to provide protection from CO, H2S, O2 risks with accurate measurement of multiple flammable gases and vapours utilising a basic methane calibration. 

Is there a need for a compliance 4-gas monitor? 

Many of the flammable gas sensors deployed in conventional monitors are optimized for detecting a specific gas or vapour through calibration but will respond to many other compounds. This is problematic and potentially dangerous as the gas concentration indicated by the sensor will not be accurate and may indicate a higher (or more dangerously) and lower concentration of gas/vapour than is present. With workers often potentially exposed to risks from multiple flammable gases and vapours within their workplace, it is incredibly important to ensure that they are protected through the implementation of an accurate and reliable sensor. 

How is the T4x portable 4-in-1 gas detector different? 

To ensure ongoing reliability and accuracy of the T4x detector. The detector utilises the  MPS™ (Molecular Property Spectrometry) Sensor functionality within its robust unit that provides a range of features to ensure safety. It offers protection against the four common gas hazards: carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide, flammable gases and oxygen depletion, whilst The T4x multi gas detector now comes with improved detection of pentane, hexane and other long chain hydrocarbons. It comprises a large single button and easy-to-follow menu system to enable ease of use for those wearing gloves, who’ve undergone minimal training. Tough, yet portable, the T4x detector features an integrated rubber boot and an optional clip-on filter that can be easily removed and replaced when needed. These features allow the sensors to remain protected even within the dirtiest environments, to ensure they can constant. 

A unique benefit to the T4x detector is that it ensures toxic gas exposure is calculated accurately throughout an entire shift, even if it is switched off momentarily, during a break or when travelling to another site. The TWA feature allows for uninterrupted and disrupted monitoring, So, when powering up, the detector begins again from zero, as if starting a new shift and ignores all previous measurements. The T4x allows the user the option to include previous measurements from within the correct time frame. The detector is not just reliable in terms of accurate detection and measurement of four gases, it is also dependable due to its battery life. It lasts for 18 hours and is useful for usage across multiple or longer shifts without requiring charging as regularly.  

During usage the T4 employs a handy ‘traffic light’ display offering constant visual assurance that it is operating soundly and conforming to the site bump test and calibration policy. The bright green and red Positive Safety LEDs are visible to all and, as a result, offer a quick, simple and comprehensive indication of the monitor’s status to both the user and others around them. 

T4x helps operations teams focus on more value adding tasks by reducing the number of sensor replacements by 75% and increasing sensor reliability. Through ensuring compliance across site T4x helps health and safety managers by eliminating the need to ensure each device is calibrated for the relevant flammable gas as it accurately detects 19 at once. Being poison resistant and with battery life doubled, operators are more likely to never be without a device. T4x reduces the 5-year total cost of ownership by over 25% and saves 12g of lead per detector which makes it much easier to recycle at the end of its life. 

Overall, through the combination of three sensors (including two new sensor technologies MPS and Long-life O2) within an already popular portable multi-gas detector. Crowcon allowed for the enhancement of safety, cost-effectiveness and efficiency of individual units and entire fleets. The new T4x offers longer life with a higher accuracy for gas hazard detection whilst providing a more sustainable build than ever before. 

Our Partnership with Tyco (Johnson Controls)

Background 

Johnson Controls has over 120 years’ experience in providing complete life safety to the oil and gas industries world-wide helping to provide 90% of the world’s top fifty oil and gas companies. Merging with Tyco in 2018 they now provide a full turn-key solution for the global marine and navy industries. The merge has allowed for the protection of over 80% of the vessels at sea for all types of assets and facilities including fixed and portable devices. Johnson Controls also supply gas detection to the renewable industry.

Views on Gas Detection 

Johnson Controls is uniquely positioned to offer comprehensive and integrated solutions for a wide range of proven products and systems across several industries and applications. Johnson Controls have a culture that focuses on innovation and continuous improvement which in turn helps to us to solve current challenges whilst constantly looking to ‘What’s next’. As gas detection is an essential instrument for many workers within the oil and gas and marine industries, providing honestly and transparency is key as well as upholding the highest standards of integrity and honour in the commitments they make, ensure that their customers are given a solution that not only solves their pain but also protects their workers.  

Working with Crowcon 

Through continuous communication, our partnership with Johnson Controls has allowed them to provide honesty and transparency to their customers. This partnership has allowed Johnson Controls to reach a variety of industries and applications. Although previously our partnership has predominately been focused on our portable product range, future hopes will be focussed on our fixed product range, of which will allow Johnson Controls to expand their customer base as well as providing a solution to a wider audience. “Our partnership with Crowcon has allowed us to offer a solution to all customers, ensuring that those who we supply equipment to are protected.”  

The importance of Gas Detection in the Marine Industry 

Gas detectors for vessels is a device that detects the presence of gases in ships, often as part of a safety system. SOLAS regulations XI- 1/7 requires that vessels have at least one portable gas monitor on board for oxygen and flammable gas detection. This type of equipment is used to detect a gas leak and interface with a control system so a process can be automatically shut down. 

Why is gas detection required? 

Gas detection equipment measures a gas concentration against a calibration gas which acts as a reference point. Some gas detection monitors only can detect a single gas, some gas detectors can detect several toxic or combustible gases and even combinations within one device. 

Marine applications often generate high humidity and dirty conditions. Detection is required from O2 monitoring in cargo room exhausts, to monitoring flammable and toxic gases within various void spaces, to pump room or cabins, fixed systems with sampling are all commonly used in marine settings. 

Gas detection is required within the marine industry due to the high temperature surfaces housed in an engine room, as well as the short circuit in the electrical system. Both factors combine with smoking or other domestic sources of fire or a reaction in the cargo, leave ships extremely vulnerable to fires. Gas detection is therefore a vital piece of equipment in protecting the lives of those who work on these vessels. This is key as many seafarers lose their lives every year due to the toxic working environment, they work in. Therefore, detecting such hazards before they become fatal, is essential to contain the damage which can take the form a disaster, meaning gas detection is one of the most important pieces of equipment on a marine vessel. 

What are the gas hazards? 

There are several different gas hazards, dependant on the vessel type, such as FPSO (floating, production, storage, and offloading), tankers, ferries, submarines, general or cargo tanks.  

FPSO and tankers house flammable gases and hydrogen sulphide. Therefore, there is a gas hazard risk of flammable gas leaks within the pump rooms. Gas hazards in confined spaces are another hazard, as there may be inerted tanks or voids, which therefore may be too much or too little oxygen in these confined space environments and where inerting gases are stored. There are also hydrocarbon oxygen risks during the purging of tanks (from %Volume to %LEL (Lower Explosive Limit)).  

  • Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NOx) are housed on ferries as a result of the accumulation from vehicle exhausts, as both are poisonous gases, they are both gas hazards to be aware of.  
  • Submarines house hydrogen within battery rooms. Along with CO2 leaks from air conditioning systems. 
  • On general vessels, CO and NOx are present engine rooms. Along with hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and O2 being depleted in bilges, that arise from the on-board sewage treatment plant. Vessels that carry food produce, such as grain, will sometimes be at risk of H2S. 
  • Cargo Tanks house vapour emission control systems which are used to analyse waste vapour gas for oxygen gas content. The system includes a pressure transmitter to monitor the pressure on the waste vapour line. 

Marine standards 

Products installed on any marine vessel must comply with internationally recognized regulations. Therefore, the international standard that applies to a vessel depend upon where it is registered. It is essential that products sold for use on a vessel comply with the standards relevant to the country in which the ship is registered. For example, products fitted to a European-registered vessel undergoing a re-fit in Singapore must comply with the European MED (Marine Equipment Directive) directive. 

There are several different standards that comply to different regions: 

  • EU (European Union) countries: MED (Marine Equipment Directive 96/98/EC). 
  • North America: US Coast Guard (USCG) regulations. 
  • Other countries: SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) regulations provide the minimum requirements, however individual countries will require compliance with the standards of their chosen marine insurance body (e.g., BV, DNV etc). 

Why use detectors? 

Gas detectors measure and specify the concentration of specific gases within the air via different technologies. 

Gas meters are also used on-board ships to measure the hydrocarbon content, explosion hazard risk, and the oxygen analysers. Under the current guidelines cargo tanks or any enclosed space on-board the ship must be tested to ensure that the space is gas-free along with ample amount of oxygen for any required personnel to work there. These circumstances include; prior to starting any repair work or before loading as quality control. 

To find out more about the Marine industry, visit our industry page.  

What are the Dangers of Confined Space Entry?

What is Confined Space and is it Classified?

Confined Space is a global concern. In this blog we are referencing the UK’s Health and Safety Executive’s dedicated documentation, as well as the United States OSHA ones, as these are broadly familiar to other countries own health and safety procedures. 

A Confined Space is a location that is substantially enclosed although not always entirely, and where serious injury can occur from hazardous substances or conditions within the space or nearby such as a lack of oxygen. As they are so dangerous, it has to be noted that any entry to confined spaces must be the only and final option in order to carry out work. Confined Spaces Regulations 1997. Approved Code of Practice, Regulations and guidance is for employees that work in Confined Spaces, those who employ or train such people and those who represent them. 

The Risks and Hazards:VOCs

A Confined Space that contains certain hazardous conditions may be considered a permit-required confined space under the standard. Permit-required confined spaces can be immediately dangerous to operator’s lives if they are not properly identified, evaluated, tested and controlled. Permit-required confined space can a defined as a confined space where there is a risk of one (or more) of the following: 

  • Serious injury due to fire or explosion 
  • Loss of consciousness arising from increased body temperature  
  • Loss of consciousness or asphyxiation arising from gas, fume, vapour, or lack of oxygen  
  • Drowning from an increase in the level of a liquid  
  • Asphyxiation arising from a free-flowing solid or being unable to reach a respirable environment due to being trapped by such a free-flowing solid 

These arise from the following hazards: 

  • Flammable substances and oxygen enrichment (read more) 
  • Excessive heat 
  • Toxic gas, fume or vapours 
  • Oxygen deficiency 
  • Ingress or pressure of liquids 
  • Free-flowing solid materials 
  • Other hazards (such as exposure to electricity, loud noise or loss of structural integrity of the space) vocs

Confined Space Identification

HSE classify Confined Spaces as any place, including any chamber, tank, vat, silo, pit, trench, pipe, sewer, flue, well or other similar space in which, by virtue of its enclosed nature, there arises a reasonably foreseeable specified risk, as outlined above.  

Most Confined Spaces are easy to identify although, identification is sometimes required as a Confined Space is not necessarily be an enclosed on all sides – some, such as vats, silos and ships’ hold, may have open tops or sides. Nor are exclusive to a small and/or difficult to work in space – some, like grain silos and ships’ holds, can be very large. They may not be that difficult to get in or out of – some have several entrances/exits, others have quite large openings or are apparently easy to escape from. Or a place where people do not regularly work – some Confined Spaces (such as those used for spray painting in car repair centres) are used regularly by people in the course of their work 

There may be instances where a space itself may not be defined as a Confined Space, however, while work is ongoing, and until the level of oxygen recovers (or the contaminants have dispersed by ventilating the area), it is classified as a Confined Space. Example scenarios are: welding that would consume some of the available breathable oxygen, a spray booth during paint spraying; using chemicals for cleaning purposes which can add volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or acidic gases, or an area subjected to significant rust which has reduced available oxygen to dangerous levels. 

What are the Rules and Regulations for Employers?

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) have released a factsheet that highlights all the rules and regulations of residential workers in Confined Spaces.  

Under the new standards, the obligation of the employer will depend on what type of employer they are. The controlling contractor is the main point of contact for any information about PRCS on site.  

The Host employer: The employer who owns or manages the property where the construction work is taking place. 

Employer can’t rely solely on the emergency services for rescue. A dedicated service must be ready to act in the event of an emergency.  The arrangements for emergency rescue, required under regulation 5 of the Confined Spaces Regulations, must be suitable and sufficient. If necessary, equipment to enable resuscitation procedures to be carried out should be provided. The arrangements should be in place before any person enters or works in a confined space. 

The Controlling contractor: The employer who has overall responsibility for construction at the worksite. 

 The Entry employer or Sub Contractor: Any employer who decides that an employee it directs will enter a permit-required confined space. 

Employees have the responsibility to raise concern such as helping highlight any potential workplace risks, ensuring that health and safety controls are practical and increasing the level of commitment to working in a safe and healthy way.  

Testing/ Monitoring the Atmosphere:

Prior to entry, the atmosphere within a confined space should be tested to check the oxygen concentration and for the presence of hazardous gas, fume or vapour. Testing should be carried out where knowledge of the confined space (e.g. from information about its previous contents or chemicals used in a previous activity in the space) indicates that the atmosphere might be contaminated or to any extent unsafe to breathe, or where any doubt exists as to the condition of the atmosphere. Testing should also be carried out if the atmosphere is has been previously contaminated and was ventilated as a consequence (HSE Safe Work in Confined Spaces: Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 and Approved Codes of Practice). 

The choice of monitoring and detecting equipment will depend on the circumstances and knowledge of possible contaminants and you may need to take advice from a competent person when deciding on the type that best suits the situation – Crowcon can help with this.  

Monitoring equipment should be in good working order. Testing and calibration may be included in daily operator checks (a response check) where identified as necessary in accordance with our specification.  

Where there is a potential risk of flammable or explosive atmospheres, equipment specifically designed to measure for these will be required and certified Intrinsically Safe. All such monitoring equipment should be specifically suited for use in potentially flammable or explosive atmospheres. Flammable gas monitors must be calibrated for the different gases or vapours which the risk assessment has identified could be present and these may need alternative calibrations for different confined spaces. Get in touch if you require any help 

Testing should be carried out by people who are competent in the practice and aware of the existing standards for the relevant airborne contaminates being measured and are also instructed and trained in the risks involved in carrying out such testing in a confined space. Those carrying out the testing should also be capable of interpreting the results and taking any necessary action. Records should be kept of the results and findings ensuring that readings are taken in the following order: oxygen, flammable and then toxics. 

The atmosphere in a confined space can often be tested from the outside, without the need for entry, by drawing samples through a long probe. Where flexible sample tubing is used, ensure that it does not draw water or is not impeded by kinks, blockages, or blocked or restricted nozzles, in-line filters can help with this. 

What products are Intrinsically Safe and are suitable for Confined Space Safety?

These products are Certified to meet local Intrinsically Safe Standards.  

The Gas-Pro portable multi gas detector offers detection of up to 5 gases in a compact and rugged solution. It has an easy-to-read top mount display making it easy to use and optimal for confined space gas detection. An optional internal pump, activated with the flow plate, takes the pain out of pre-entry testing, and allows Gas-Pro to be worn either in pumped or diffusion modes. 

Gas-Pro TK offers the same gas safety benefits as the regular Gas-Pro, while offering Tank Check mode which can auto-range between %LEL and %Volume for inerting applications. 

T4 portable 4-in-1 gas detector provides effective protection against 4 common gas hazards: carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide, flammable gases, and oxygen depletion. The T4 multi gas detector now comes with improved detection of pentane, hexane, and other long chain hydrocarbons. 

Tetra 3 portable multi gas monitor can detect and monitor the four most common gases (carbon monoxide, methane, oxygen, and hydrogen sulphide), but also an expanded range: ammonia, ozone, sulphur dioxide, H2 filtered CO (for steel plants).