The need for gas detection in the medical and healthcare sector may be less widely understood outside of the industry, but the requirement is there nonetheless. With patients across a number of settings receiving a variety of treatment and medical therapies that involve the usage of chemicals, the need to accurately monitor the gases utilised or emitted, within this process is very important to allow for their continued safe treatment.
In order to safeguard both patients and, of course, the healthcare professionals themselves, the implementation of accurate and reliable monitoring equipment is a must.
In healthcare and hospital settings, a range of potentially hazardous gases can present themselves due to the medical equipment and apparatus utilised. Harmful chemicals are also used for disinfectant and cleansing purposes within hospital work surfaces and medical supplies. For example, potentially hazardous chemicals can be used as a preservative for tissue specimens, such as toluene, xylene or formaldehyde.
Gas sensors should therefore be used within PACU, ICU, EMS, pre-hospital rescue, PAP therapy and HFNC therapy to monitor the gas levels of a range of equipment including ventilators, oxygen concentrators, oxygen generators and anaesthesia machines.
In light of the worldwide pandemic, COVID-19, the need for increased oxygen on hospital wards has been recognised by healthcare professionals due to the escalating number of ventilators in use. Oxygen sensors are vital, within ICU wards specifically, as they inform the clinician how much oxygen is being delivered to the patient during ventilation. This can prevent the risk of hypoxia, hypoxemia or oxygen toxicity. If oxygen sensors do not function as they should they can alarm regularly, need changing and unfortunately even lead to fatalities. This increased use of ventilators also enriches the air with oxygen, and can raise the combustion risk. There is a need to measure the levels of oxygen in the air using a fixed gas detection system to avoid unsafe levels in the air.
Carbon dioxide level monitoring is also required in healthcare environments to ensure a safe working environment for professionals, as well as to safeguard patients being treated. Carbon dioxide is used within a plethora of medical and healthcare procedures from minimally invasive surgeries, such as endoscopy, arthroscopy and laparoscopy, cryotherapy and anaesthesia. CO2 is also used in incubators and laboratories and, as it is a toxic gas, can cause asphyxiation. Heightened levels of CO2 in the air, emitted by certain machinery, can cause harm to those in the environment, as well as spread pathogens and viruses. CO2 detectors in healthcare environments can therefore improve ventilation, air flow and the wellbeing of all.
A range of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) can be found in hospital and healthcare environments and cause harm to those working, and being treated within it. VOCs such as aliphatic, aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, ethers and terpenes, to name a few, have been measured in hospital environments, originating from a number of specific areas including reception halls, patient rooms, nursing care, post-anesthesia care units, parasitology-mycology labs and disinfection units. Although still in the research stage of their prevalence in healthcare settings, it is clear VOC ingestion has adverse effects on human health such as irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat; headaches and the loss of coordination; nausea; and damage to the liver, kidneys, or central nervous system. Some VOCs, benzene specifically, is a carcinogen. Implementing gas detection is therefore a must to safeguard everyone from harm.
The Care Quality Commission (CQC) is the organisation in England that regulates the quality and safety of the care delivered within all healthcare, medical, health and social care, and voluntary care settings across the country. The commission provides best practice details for the administering of oxygen to patients and the proper measurement and recording of levels, storage and training about the use of this and other medical gases.
The UK regulator for medical gases is the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). They are an Executive Agency of the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) that ensures public and patient health and safety through the regulation of medicines, healthcare products and medical equipment in the sector. They set appropriate standards of safety, quality, performance and effectiveness, and ensure all equipment is used safely. Any company manufacturing medical gases requires a Manufacturer’s Authorisation issued by the MHRA.
In the USA The Food and Drug Association (FDA) regulates the certification process for the manufacture, sale and marketing of designated medical gases. Under Section 575 the FDA states that anyone marketing a medical gas for human or animal drug use without an approved application is breaking specified guidelines. The medical gases that require certification include oxygen, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, helium, 20 carbon monoxide, and medical air.