Detecting dangers in dairy: What gases should you be aware of? 

Global demand for dairy continues to increase in large part due to population growth, rising incomes and urbanisation. Millions of farmers worldwide tend approximately 270 million dairy cows to produce milk. Throughout the dairy farm industry there are a variety of gas hazards that pose a risk to those working in the dairy industry.  

What are the dangers workers face in the dairy industry?

Chemicals

Throughout the dairy farm industry, chemicals are used for variety of tasks including cleaning, applying various treatments such as vaccinations or medications, antibiotics, sterilising and spraying. If these chemicals and hazardous substances are not used or stored correctly, this can result in serious harm to the worker or the surrounding environment. Not only can these chemicals cause illness, but there is also a risk of death if a person is exposed. Some chemicals can be flammable and explosive whilst others are corrosive and poisonous. 

There are several ways to manage these chemical hazards, although the main concern should be in implementing a process and procedure. This procedure should ensure all staff are trained in the safe use of chemicals with records being maintained. As part of the chemical procedure, this should include a chemical manifest for tracking purposes. This type of inventory management allows for all personal to have access to Safety Data Sheets (SDS) as well as usage and location records. Alongside this manifest, there should be consideration for the review of current operation.  

  • What is the current procedure?  
  • What PPE is required?  
  • What is the process for discarding out of date chemicals and is there is a substitute chemical that could pose less of a risk to your workers? 

Confined Spaces

There are numerous circumstances that could require a worker to enter a confined space, including feed silos, milk vats, water tanks and pits in the dairy industry. The safest way to eliminate a confined space hazard, as mentioned by many industry bodies, is to employ a safe design. This will include the removal of any need to enter a confined space. Although, this may not be realistic and from time to time, cleaning routines need to take place, or a blockage may occur, however, there is a requirement to ensure there is the correct procedures to address the hazard. 

Chemical agents when used in a confined space can increase the risk of suffocation with gases pushing out oxygen. One way you can eliminate this risk is by cleaning the vat from the outside using a high-pressure hose. If a worker does need to enter the confined space, check that the correct signage is in place since entry and exit points will be restricted. You should consider isolation switches and check that your staff understand the correct emergency rescue procedure if something were to happen. 

Gas Hazards

Ammonia (NH3) is found in animal waste and slurry spreading on farming and agricultural land. It is characteristically a colourless gas with a pungent smell that arises through the decomposition of nitrogen compounds in animal waste. Not only is it harmful to human health but also harmful to livestock wellbeing, due to its ability to cause respiratory diseases in livestock, and eye irritation, blindness, lung damage, alongside nose and throat damage and even death in humans. Ventilation is a key requirement in preventing health issues, as poor ventilation heightens the damage caused by this gas.  

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is naturally produced in the atmosphere; although, levels are increased through farming and agricultural processes. CO2, is colourless, odourless, and is emitted from agricultural equipment, crop and livestock production and other farming processes. CO2 can congregate areas, such as waste tanks and silos. This results in oxygen in the air to be displaced and increasing the risk of suffocation for animals and humans.  Sealed silos, waste and grain storage spaces are specifically dangerous as CO2 can accumulate here and lead to them being unsuitable for humans without an external air supply. 

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), is one of a group of highly reactive gases known as oxides of nitrogen or nitrogen oxides (NOx). At worst, it can cause sudden death when consumed even from short term exposure. This gas can cause suffocation and is emitted from silos following specific chemical reactions of plant material. It is recognisable by its bleach-like smell and its properties tend to create a red-brown haze. As it gathers above certain surfaces it can run into areas with livestock through silo chutes, and therefore poses a real danger to humans and animals in the surrounding area. It can also affect lung function, cause internal bleeding, and ongoing respiratory problems. 

When should gas detectors be used?

Gas detectors provide added value anywhere on dairy farms and around slurry silos, but above all: 

  • When and where slurry is being mixed 
  • During pumping and bringing out slurry
  • On and around the tractor during slurry mixing or spreading 
  • In the stable during maintenance work on slurry pumps, slurry scrapers and the like 
  • Near and around small openings and cracks in the floor, e.g., around milking robots 
  • Low to the ground in poorly ventilated corners and spaces (H2S is heavier than air and sinks to the floor) 
  • In slurry silos 
  • In slurry tanks 

Products that can help to protect yourself 

Gas detection can be provided in both fixed and portable forms. Installation of a fixed gas detector can benefit a larger space to provide continuous area and staff protection 24 hours a day. However, a portable detector can be more suited for worker’s safety. 

To find out more on the dangers in agriculture and farming, visit our industry page for more information. 

Our Partnership with Pass Ltd 

Background  

Founded in early 2001 and based in Stockton-On-Tees, PASS Ltd is a leading supplier of test equipment, training, and calibration. Built on delivering an exceptional customer experience, they have grown to offer one of the most comprehensive catalogues of test and measurement, thermal imaging, and industrial safety products, as well as a broad calibration scope. In 2014, their calibration and repair laboratories gained UKAS accreditation. PASS Ltd pride themselves on offering a fast, affordable service; therefore, they have developed an online asset management portal for larger businesses to provide 24/7 access to asset details and service tracking. Additionally, as an accredited training provider specialising in low and high voltage courses, PASS Ltd offers an ever-expanding range of classes including City & Guilds and MCA accredited programmes.   

Views on HVAC 

PASS Ltd understand that confined spaces can be extremely dangerous and this is what makes these areas such a cause for global concern. They acknowledge that not all confined spaces are fully enclosed but point out that these locations may still pose a significant risk due to hazardous substances or conditions within or nearby the space, for example, a lack of oxygen. It is therefore critical to provide education and training on dangerous gases and environments to those working in the HVAC industry.    

Working with Crowcon  

PASS Ltd have been a long-term partner of Crowcon. For over seven years our partnership has enabled new areas of growth within the HVAC and portables industries. PASS Ltd attest that “our partnership has allowed us to supply a range of gas detection products and services that are reliable and diverse, improving the safety of our customers working within the Gas, HVAC, and Plumbing sectors. Crowcon’s quality and values align well with PASS’ ethos; they are the perfect partner to support our mission of raising end-users’ and businesses’ awareness of gas exposure.” 

Carbon Dioxide: What are the dangers in the Food and Beverage Industry? 

Almost all industries must monitor gas hazards, with the food and beverage industry no exception. Although, there is a lack of awareness regarding the dangers of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the dangers those working in the industry face. CO2 is the most common gas in the food and beverage industry because it is used in the carbonation of drinks, to propel beverages to the tap in pubs and restaurants and to keep food items cold during transportation in the form of dry ice. It is also naturally produced in beverage manufacturing processes by leavening agents like yeast and sugar. Although CO2 may seem harmless at first glance as we exhale it with every breath, and plants need it for survival, the presence of carbon dioxide becomes a problem when its concentration rises to dangerous levels.

The Dangers of CO2

Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in the atmosphere (typically 0.04% in air). CO2 is colourless and odourless, heavier than air, and tends to sink to the floor. CO2 collects in cellars and at the bottom of containers and confined spaces such as tanks or silos.

Since CO2 is heavier than air, it quickly displaces oxygen at high concentrations can result in asphyxiation due to a lack of oxygen or breathable air. Exposure to CO2 is easy, especially in a confined space like a tank or a cellar. Early symptoms of exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide include dizziness, headaches, and confusion, followed by loss of consciousness. Accidents and fatalities occur in the food and beverage industry due to a carbon dioxide leak. Without proper detection methods and processes in place, everyone at a facility could be at risk.

Gas Monitors – what are the benefits?

Any application that uses carbon dioxide puts workers at risk, and the only way to identify high levels before it’s too late is to use gas monitors.

Gas detection can be provided in both fixed and portable forms. Installation of a fixed gas detector can benefit a larger space such as plant rooms to provide continuous area and staff protection 24 hours a day. However, a portable detector can be more suited for worker safety in and around the cylinder storage area and in spaces designated as a confined space. This is especially true for pubs and beverage dispensing outlets for the safety of workers and those unfamiliar with the environment, such as delivery drivers, sales teams or equipment technicians. The portable unit can easily be clipped to clothing and will detect pockets of CO2 using alarms and visual signals, indicating that the user should immediately vacate the area.

Personal gas detectors continuously monitor the air in workers’ breathing zone when worn correctly,  to give them better awareness and the information they need to make smart decisions in the face of danger. Not only can gas monitors detect carbon dioxide in the air, but they can also alert others if an employee is in danger. Carbon dioxide can be monitored using a single gas monitor or by using a multi-gas monitor with a dedicated carbon dioxide sensor. It is important to note the carbon dioxide can escalate to dangerous levels before an oxygen sensor would alarm.

What are the Dangers of Confined Space Entry?

What is Confined Space and is it Classified?

Confined Space is a global concern. In this blog we are referencing the UK’s Health and Safety Executive’s dedicated documentation, as well as the United States OSHA ones, as these are broadly familiar to other countries own health and safety procedures. 

A Confined Space is a location that is substantially enclosed although not always entirely, and where serious injury can occur from hazardous substances or conditions within the space or nearby such as a lack of oxygen. As they are so dangerous, it has to be noted that any entry to confined spaces must be the only and final option in order to carry out work. Confined Spaces Regulations 1997. Approved Code of Practice, Regulations and guidance is for employees that work in Confined Spaces, those who employ or train such people and those who represent them. 

The Risks and Hazards:VOCs

A Confined Space that contains certain hazardous conditions may be considered a permit-required confined space under the standard. Permit-required confined spaces can be immediately dangerous to operator’s lives if they are not properly identified, evaluated, tested and controlled. Permit-required confined space can a defined as a confined space where there is a risk of one (or more) of the following: 

  • Serious injury due to fire or explosion 
  • Loss of consciousness arising from increased body temperature  
  • Loss of consciousness or asphyxiation arising from gas, fume, vapour, or lack of oxygen  
  • Drowning from an increase in the level of a liquid  
  • Asphyxiation arising from a free-flowing solid or being unable to reach a respirable environment due to being trapped by such a free-flowing solid 

These arise from the following hazards: 

  • Flammable substances and oxygen enrichment (read more) 
  • Excessive heat 
  • Toxic gas, fume or vapours 
  • Oxygen deficiency 
  • Ingress or pressure of liquids 
  • Free-flowing solid materials 
  • Other hazards (such as exposure to electricity, loud noise or loss of structural integrity of the space) vocs

Confined Space Identification

HSE classify Confined Spaces as any place, including any chamber, tank, vat, silo, pit, trench, pipe, sewer, flue, well or other similar space in which, by virtue of its enclosed nature, there arises a reasonably foreseeable specified risk, as outlined above.  

Most Confined Spaces are easy to identify although, identification is sometimes required as a Confined Space is not necessarily be an enclosed on all sides – some, such as vats, silos and ships’ hold, may have open tops or sides. Nor are exclusive to a small and/or difficult to work in space – some, like grain silos and ships’ holds, can be very large. They may not be that difficult to get in or out of – some have several entrances/exits, others have quite large openings or are apparently easy to escape from. Or a place where people do not regularly work – some Confined Spaces (such as those used for spray painting in car repair centres) are used regularly by people in the course of their work 

There may be instances where a space itself may not be defined as a Confined Space, however, while work is ongoing, and until the level of oxygen recovers (or the contaminants have dispersed by ventilating the area), it is classified as a Confined Space. Example scenarios are: welding that would consume some of the available breathable oxygen, a spray booth during paint spraying; using chemicals for cleaning purposes which can add volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or acidic gases, or an area subjected to significant rust which has reduced available oxygen to dangerous levels. 

What are the Rules and Regulations for Employers?

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) have released a factsheet that highlights all the rules and regulations of residential workers in Confined Spaces.  

Under the new standards, the obligation of the employer will depend on what type of employer they are. The controlling contractor is the main point of contact for any information about PRCS on site.  

The Host employer: The employer who owns or manages the property where the construction work is taking place. 

Employer can’t rely solely on the emergency services for rescue. A dedicated service must be ready to act in the event of an emergency.  The arrangements for emergency rescue, required under regulation 5 of the Confined Spaces Regulations, must be suitable and sufficient. If necessary, equipment to enable resuscitation procedures to be carried out should be provided. The arrangements should be in place before any person enters or works in a confined space. 

The Controlling contractor: The employer who has overall responsibility for construction at the worksite. 

 The Entry employer or Sub Contractor: Any employer who decides that an employee it directs will enter a permit-required confined space. 

Employees have the responsibility to raise concern such as helping highlight any potential workplace risks, ensuring that health and safety controls are practical and increasing the level of commitment to working in a safe and healthy way.  

Testing/ Monitoring the Atmosphere:

Prior to entry, the atmosphere within a confined space should be tested to check the oxygen concentration and for the presence of hazardous gas, fume or vapour. Testing should be carried out where knowledge of the confined space (e.g. from information about its previous contents or chemicals used in a previous activity in the space) indicates that the atmosphere might be contaminated or to any extent unsafe to breathe, or where any doubt exists as to the condition of the atmosphere. Testing should also be carried out if the atmosphere is has been previously contaminated and was ventilated as a consequence (HSE Safe Work in Confined Spaces: Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 and Approved Codes of Practice). 

The choice of monitoring and detecting equipment will depend on the circumstances and knowledge of possible contaminants and you may need to take advice from a competent person when deciding on the type that best suits the situation – Crowcon can help with this.  

Monitoring equipment should be in good working order. Testing and calibration may be included in daily operator checks (a response check) where identified as necessary in accordance with our specification.  

Where there is a potential risk of flammable or explosive atmospheres, equipment specifically designed to measure for these will be required and certified Intrinsically Safe. All such monitoring equipment should be specifically suited for use in potentially flammable or explosive atmospheres. Flammable gas monitors must be calibrated for the different gases or vapours which the risk assessment has identified could be present and these may need alternative calibrations for different confined spaces. Get in touch if you require any help 

Testing should be carried out by people who are competent in the practice and aware of the existing standards for the relevant airborne contaminates being measured and are also instructed and trained in the risks involved in carrying out such testing in a confined space. Those carrying out the testing should also be capable of interpreting the results and taking any necessary action. Records should be kept of the results and findings ensuring that readings are taken in the following order: oxygen, flammable and then toxics. 

The atmosphere in a confined space can often be tested from the outside, without the need for entry, by drawing samples through a long probe. Where flexible sample tubing is used, ensure that it does not draw water or is not impeded by kinks, blockages, or blocked or restricted nozzles, in-line filters can help with this. 

What products are Intrinsically Safe and are suitable for Confined Space Safety?

These products are Certified to meet local Intrinsically Safe Standards.  

The Gas-Pro portable multi gas detector offers detection of up to 5 gases in a compact and rugged solution. It has an easy-to-read top mount display making it easy to use and optimal for confined space gas detection. An optional internal pump, activated with the flow plate, takes the pain out of pre-entry testing, and allows Gas-Pro to be worn either in pumped or diffusion modes. 

Gas-Pro TK offers the same gas safety benefits as the regular Gas-Pro, while offering Tank Check mode which can auto-range between %LEL and %Volume for inerting applications. 

T4 portable 4-in-1 gas detector provides effective protection against 4 common gas hazards: carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide, flammable gases, and oxygen depletion. The T4 multi gas detector now comes with improved detection of pentane, hexane, and other long chain hydrocarbons. 

Tetra 3 portable multi gas monitor can detect and monitor the four most common gases (carbon monoxide, methane, oxygen, and hydrogen sulphide), but also an expanded range: ammonia, ozone, sulphur dioxide, H2 filtered CO (for steel plants). 

Have you ever thought about the dangers behind your favourite beverage?

Beer Production

It’s only natural for us to associate the need for gas detection in the oil and gas, and steel industries, but have you thought about the need to detect hazardous gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen in the brewing and beverage industry?

Maybe it’s because nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are naturally present in the atmosphere. It could be that CO2 is still under-valued as a hazardous gas. Although in the atmosphere CO2 remains at very low concentrations – around 400 parts per million (ppm), greater care is needed in brewery and cellar environments where in confined spaces, the risk of gas canisters or associated equipment leaking could lead to elevated levels. As little as 0.5% volume (5000ppm) of CO2 is a toxic health hazard. Nitrogen on the other hand, can displace oxygen.

CO2 is colourless, odourless and has a density which is heavier than air, meaning pockets of CO2 gather low on the ground gradually increasing in size. CO2 is generated in huge amounts during fermentation and can pose a risk in confined spaces such as vats, cellars or cylinder storage areas, this can be fatal to workers in the surrounding environment, therefore Health & Safety managers must ensure the correct equipment and detectors are in place.

Brewers often use nitrogen in multiple phases of the brewing and dispensing process to put bubbles into beer, particularly stouts, pale ales and porters, it also ensures the beer doesn’t oxidise or pollute the next batch with harsh flavours. Nitrogen helps push the liquid from one tank to another, as well as offer the potential to be injected into kegs or barrels, pressurising them ready for storage and shipment. This gas is not toxic, but does displace oxygen in the atmosphere, which can be a danger if there is a gas leak which is why accurate gas detection is critical.

Gas detection can be provided in the form of both fixed and portable. Installation of a fixed gas detector can benefit a larger space such as plant rooms to provide continuous area and staff protection 24 hours a day. However, for worker safety in and around cylinder storage area and in spaces designated as a confined space, a portable detector can be more suited. This is especially true for pubs and beverage dispensing outlets for the safety of workers and those who are unfamiliar in the environment such as delivery drivers, sales teams or equipment technicians. The portable unit can easily be clipped to belts or clothing and will detect pockets of CO2 using alarms and visual signals, indicating that the user should immediately vacate the area.

At Crowcon, we’re dedicated in growing a safer, cleaner, healthier future for everyone, every day by providing best in class gas safety solutions. It’s vital that once gas detectors are deployed, employees should not get complacent, and should be making the necessary checks an essential part of each working day as early detection can be the difference between life and death.

Quick facts and tips about gas detection in breweries:

  • Nitrogen and CO2 are both colourless and odourless. CO2 being 5 times heavier than air, making it a silent and deadly gas.
  • Anyone entering a tank or other confined space must be equipped with a suitable gas detector.
  • Early detection can be the difference between life and death.

Don’t get caught in a tight space!

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) has released a factsheet (29 CFR 1926 Subpart AA) on all the rules and regulations of residential workers in confined spaces. OSHA works to assure the safety and health of all of America’s working people.

This blog highlights what we think are the key points.

Well, how is a confined space defined?

OSHA defines these as

  • has limited entry and exits
  • larger enough for workers to enter
  • not intended for regular occupancy

Confined space sites could be drains, manholes, water mains, sewer systems, crawl spaces, attics, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems.

There are two different variants on confined spaces. Those that contain hazardous conditions and those that do not contain a physical hazard to the individual.

A confined space that contains hazardous conditions could be considered a permit-required space under the new regulations (PRCS). These spaces might be dangerous to the life of the worker if the space hasn’t been investigated, tested and controlled.

Spaces that tend not to be permit-required confined spaces generally do not contain life threatening hazards. Attics, basements and crawl spaces have a smaller risks but still fall into new regulations.

I’m an employer. What do I need to do?

  • Evaluate the space! If hazardous conditions are present, a permit specifying safety measures and names of those permitted in the space must be written before any work can take place.
  • Inform employees! Let your employees know all the facts. Does a workplace contain a confined space? Is this a permit-required space? All workers should be informed of these hazards – these only needs to be a signpost for entry and exit points if required.
  • Protection! Attempt to remove or isolate any hazards that may be present in the space.
  • Have the right equipment! Check out our range of Portables that would help protect your employees from hazardous gases.
  • Train your staff! Workers should be aware of the dangers and understand any hazards in places permits are required.

Still not clear? Don’t worry, the factsheet offers insight and obligations for all kinds of employers.

Under the new standards, the obligation of the employer will depend on what type of employer they are. The controlling contractor is the main point of contact for any information about PRCS on site.

  • Host employer: The employer who owns or manages the property where the construction work is taking place.
  • Controlling contractor: The employer who has overall responsibility for construction at the worksite.
  • Entry employer or Sub Contractor: Any employer who decides that an employee it directs will enter a permit-required confined space.

How are the new regulations different to the previously applied rules?

The guidelines require employers to figure out what confined spaces their employees are working in, what hazards there are and how these can be made safer, develop rescue plans and ensuring staff training.

For all the facts, visit https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3914.pdf

 

Successful aspirations

Good confined space entry procedure requires the use of a pumped portable detector to check the space is safety to enter. But some detectors don’t have pumps built in, in which case, an aspirator should be used. An aspirator is a manual system for drawing the air through a tube to the sensor, and it can work well. However, it is something that requires practice to give confidence that you are doing it right.

Continue reading “Successful aspirations”

Hydrogen Sulphide Hazards

Next in our series of short videos is our hydrogen sulphide detection factoid.

Where is H2S found?

Hydrogen sulphide is a significant danger to workers in many industries. It is a by-product of industrial processes, such as petroleum refining, mining, paper mills, and iron smelting. It is also a common product of the biodegradation of organic matter; pockets of H2S can collect in rotting vegetation, or sewage itself, and be released when disturbed.

Continue reading “Hydrogen Sulphide Hazards”

Carbon Dioxide – Friend and Foe?

Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is commonly used in the manufacture of popular beverages. The leak at the Greene King brewery in Bury St Edmunds (UK) last week, is a reminder of the importance of effective gas detection. It resulted in twenty workers having to be rescued by emergency services and local residents being evacuated. So what is carbon dioxide, why is it dangerous and why do we have to monitor it carefully?

Continue reading “Carbon Dioxide – Friend and Foe?”

Gas ‘n air

The theme of the hazards of confined space entry (CSE) is one we frequently return to, along with importance of using the correct safety procedures both for the pre-entry check and while in the confined space. But confined spaces are not always immediately obvious, and thorough risk assessment can be essential.

Continue reading “Gas ‘n air”