The importance of gas detection in the Petrochemical Industry

Closely linked to oil and gas, the petrochemicals industry takes raw materials from refining and gas processing and, through chemical process technologies, converts them into valuable products. In this sector, the organic chemicals produced in the largest volumes are methanol, ethylene, propylene, butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX). These chemicals are the building blocks of many consumer goods including plastics, clothing fabric, construction materials, synthetic detergents and agrichemical products.

Potential Hazards

Exposure to potential hazardous substances is more likely to occur during shutdown or maintenance work as these are a deviation from the refinery’s routine operations. As these deviations are out of normal routine, care should be exercised at all times to avoid the inhalation of solvent vapours, toxic gases, and other respiratory contaminants. The assistance of constant automated monitoring is helpful in determining the presence of solvents or gases, allowing their associated risks to be mitigated. This includes warning systems such as gas and flame detectors, supported by emergency procedures, and permit systems for any kind of potentially dangerous work.

The petroleum industry is split into upstream, midstream and downstream and these are defined by the nature of the work that takes place in each area. Upstream work is typically known as the exploration and production (E&P) sector. Midstream refers to the transportation of products through pipelines, transit and oil tankers as well as the wholesale marketing of petroleum-based products. The downstream sector refers to the refining of petroleum crude oil, the processing of raw natural gas and the marketing and distribution of finished products.

Upstream

Fixed and portable gas detectors are needed to protect plant and personnel from the risks of flammable gas releases (commonly methane) as well as from high levels of H2S, particularly from sour wells. Gas detectors for O2 depletion, SO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are required items of personal protection equipment (PPE), which is usually highly visible colour and worn near breathing space. Sometimes HF solution is used as a scouring agent. Key requirements for gas detectors are rugged and reliable design and long battery life. Models with design elements that support easy fleet management and compliance obviously have an advantage. You can read about VOC risk and Crowcon’s solution in our case study.

Midstream

Fixed monitoring of flammable gases situated close to pressure relief devices, filling and emptying areas is necessary to deliver early warning of localised leaks. Multi-gas portable monitors must be used to maintain personal safety, especially during work in confined spaces and supporting hot work permit area testing. Infrared technology in flammable gas detection supports purging with the ability to operate in inert atmospheres and delivers reliable detection in areas where pellistor type detectors would fail, due to poisoning or volume level exposure. You can read more on how infrared detection works in our blog and read our case study of infrared monitoring in refinery settings in Southeast Asia.

Portable laser methane detection (LMm) allows users to pin-point leaks at distance and in hard-to-reach areas, reducing the need for personnel to enter potentially dangerous environments or situations while performing routine or investigative leak monitoring. Using LMm is a quick and effective way to check areas for methane with a reflector, from up to 100m away. These areas include closed buildings, confined spaces and other difficult-to-reach areas such as above-ground pipelines that are near water or behind fences.

Downstream

In downstream refining, the gas risks may be almost any hydrocarbon, and may also include hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide and other by-products. Catalytic flammable gas detectors are one of the oldest flammable gas detector types. They work well, but must have a bump testing station, to ensure each detector responds to the target gas and is still functional. The ongoing demand to reduce facility down-time whilst ensuring safety, especially during shutdown and turnaround operations, means that gas detection manufacturers must deliver solutions offering ease of use, straightforward training and reduced maintenance times, along with local service and support.

During plant shutdowns, processes are stopped, items of equipment are opened and checked and the number of people and moving vehicles at the site is many times higher than normal. Many of the processes undertaken will be hazardous and require specific gas monitoring. For example, welding and tank cleaning activities require area monitors as well as personal monitors to protect those on site.

Confined space

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a potential problem in the transport and storage of crude oil. The cleaning of storage tanks presents a high hazard potential. Many confined-space entry problems can occur here, including oxygen deficiency resulting from previous inerting procedures, rusting, and oxidation of organic coatings. Inerting is the process of reducing the oxygen levels in a cargo tank to remove the oxygen element required for ignition. Carbon monoxide can be present in the inerting gas. In addition to H2S, depending on the characteristics of the product previously stored in the tanks, other chemicals that may be encountered include metal carbonyls, arsenic, and tetraethyl lead.

Our Solutions

Elimination of these gas hazards is virtually impossible, so permanent workers and contractors must depend on reliable gas detection equipment to protect them. Gas detection can be provided in both fixed and portable forms. Our portable gas detectors protect against a wide range of gas hazards, these include Clip SGD, Gasman, Tetra 3,Gas-Pro, T4, Gas-Pro TK and Detective+. Our fixed gas detectors are used in many applications where reliability, dependability and lack of false alarms are instrumental to efficient and effective gas detection, these include Xgard, Xgard Bright, Fgard IR3 Flame Detector and IRmax. Combined with a variety of our fixed detectors, our gas detection control panels offer a flexible range of solutions that measure flammable, toxic and oxygen gases, report their presence and activate alarms or associated equipment, for the petrochemical industry our panels include Addressable Controllers, Vortex and Gasmonitor.

To find out more on the gas hazards in the petrochemical industry visit our industry page for more information.

The importance of Gas Detection in the Water and Wastewater Industry 

Water is vital to our daily lives, both for personal and domestic use and industrial/commercial applications. Whether a facility focuses on the production of clean, potable water or treating effluent, Crowcon is proud to serve a wide variety of water industry clients, providing gas detection equipment that keeps workers safe around the world. 

Gas Hazards 

Apart from common gas hazards known in the industry; methane, hydrogen sulphide, and oxygen, there are bi-product gas hazards and cleaning material gas hazards that occur from purifying chemicals such as ammonia, chlorine, chlorine dioxide or ozone that are used in the decontamination of the waste and effluent water, or to remove microbes from clean water. There is great potential for many toxic or explosive gases to exist as a result of the chemicals used in the water industry. And added to these are chemicals that may be spilled or dumped into the waste system from industry, farming or building work. 

Safety Considerations  

Confined Space Entry 

The pipelines used to transport water require regular cleaning and safety checks; during these operations, portable multi-gas monitors are used to protect the workforce. Pre-entry checks must be completed prior to entering any confined space and commonly O2, CO, H2S and CH4 are monitored. Confined spaces are small, so portable monitors must be compact and unobtrusive for the user, yet able to withstand the wet and dirty environments in which they must perform. Clear and prompt indication of any increase in gas monitored (or any decrease for oxygen) is of paramount importance – loud and bright alarms are effective in raising the alarm to the user. 

Risk assessment 

Risk assessment is critical, as you need to be aware of the environment that you are entering and thus working in. Therefore, understanding the applications and identifying the risks regarding all safety aspects. Focusing on gas monitoring, as part of the risk assessment, you need to be clear on what gases may be present.  

Fit for purpose 

There is a variety of applications within the water treatment process, giving the need to monitor multiple gases, including carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, chlorine, methane, oxygen, ozone and chlorine dioxide. Gas detectors are available for single or multiple gas monitoring, making them practical for different applications as well as making sure that, if conditions change (such as sludge is stirred up, causing a sudden increase in hydrogen sulphide and flammable gas levels), the worker is still protected.  

Legislation   

European Commission Directive 2017/164 issued in January 2017, established a new list of indicative occupational exposure limit values (IOELVs). IOELV are health-based, non-binding values, derived from the most recent scientific data available and considering the availability of reliable measurement techniques. The list includes carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, manganese, diacetyl and many other chemicals. The list is based on Council Directive 98/24/EC that considers the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents in the workplace. For any chemical agent for which an IOELV has been set at Union level, Member States are required to establish a national occupational exposure limit value. They also are required to take into account the Union limit value, determining the nature of the national limit value in accordance with national legislation and practice. Member States will be able to benefit from a transitional period ending at the latest on 21 August 2023.  

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) state that each year several workers will suffer from at least one episode of work-related illness. Although, most illnesses are relatively mild cases of gastroenteritis, there is also a risk for potentially fatal diseases, such as leptospirosis (Weil’s disease) and hepatitis. Even though these are reported to the HSE, there could be significant under-reporting as there is often failure to recognise the link between illness and work.  

Under domestic law of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, employers are responsible for ensuring the safety of their employees and others. This responsibility is reinforced by regulations. 

The Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 applies where the assessment identifies risks of serious injury from work in confined spaces. These regulations contain the following key duties: 

  • Avoid entry to confined spaces, e.g., by doing the work from the outside. 
  • If entry to a confined space is unavoidable, follow a safe system of work.
  • Put in place adequate emergency arrangements before the work start. 

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 requires employers and self-employed people to carry out a suitable and sufficient assessment of the risks for all work activities for the purpose of deciding what measures are necessary for safety. For work in confined spaces this means identifying the hazards present, assessing the risks and determining what precautions to take. 

Our solutions

Elimination of these gas hazards is virtually impossible, so permanent workers and contractors must depend on reliable gas detection equipment to protect them. Gas detection can be provided in both fixed and portable forms. Our portable gas detectors protect against a wide range of gas hazards, these include T4x, Clip SGD, Gasman, Tetra 3,Gas-Pro, T4 and Detective+. Our fixed gas detectors are used in many applications where reliability, dependability and lack of false alarms are instrumental to efficient and effective gas detection, these include Xgard, Xgard Bright and IRmax. Combined with a variety of our fixed detectors, our gas detection control panels offer a flexible range of solutions that measure flammable, toxic and oxygen gases, report their presence and activate alarms or associated equipment, for the wastewater industry our panels include Gasmaster.    

To find out more on the gas hazards in wastewater and water treatment visit our industry page for more information.  

The Dangers of Gas in Farming and Agriculture 

Farming and agriculture is a colossal industry the world over, providing more than 44 million jobs in the EU and making up over 10% of total US employment. 

With a wide range of processes involved in this sector, there are bound to be hazards that must be considered. These include gas hazards from the likes of methane, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. 

Methane is a colourless, odourless gas which can have harmful effects on humans resulting in slurred speech, vision problems, memory loss, nausea and in extreme cases can impact breathing and heartrate, potentially leading to unconsciousness and even death. In agricultural environments, it is created through anaerobic digestion of organic material, such as manure. The amount of methane generated is exacerbated in areas which are poorly ventilated or high in temperature, and in areas with particular lack of airflow, the gas can build up, become trapped and cause explosions. 

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas which is naturally produced in the atmosphere, levels of which can be heightened by agricultural processes. CO2 can be emitted by a range of farming process including crop and livestock production and is also emitted by some equipment which is used in agricultural applications. Storage spaces used for waste and grain and sealed silos are of particular concern due to the capacity for CO2 to build up and displace oxygen, increasing suffocation risk for both animals and humans alike. 

Similarly, to methane, hydrogen sulphide comes from the anaerobic decomposition of organic material and can also be found in a range of agricultural processes relating to the production and consumption of biogas. H2S prevents oxygen from being carried to our vital organs and areas where it builds up often have reduced oxygen concentrations, furthering the risk of asphyxiation where H2S levels are high. Whilst it could be considered easier to detect due its distinct ‘rotten egg’ smell, the intensity of the smell actually decreases at higher concentrations and prolonged exposure. At high levels, H2S can cause severe irritation of, and fluid build-up in the lungs and impact the nervous system. 

Ammonia (NH3) is a gas found in animal waste which is often then spread and emitted further through slurry spreading on agricultural land. As with many of the gases covered, the impact of ammonia is heightened when there is a lack of ventilation. It is harmful to the wellbeing of both livestock and humans, causing respiratory diseases in animals whilst high levels can lead to burns and swelling of the airways and lung damage in humans and can be fatal. 

Nitrogen oxide (NO2) is another gas to be aware of in the agriculture and farming industry. It is present in synthetic fertilisers which are often used in more intensive farming practices to ensure greater crop yields. The potential negative health impacts of NO2 in humans include reduced lung function, internal bleeding, and ongoing respiratory problems.  

Workers in this industry are frequently on the move, and for this specific purpose Crowcon offers a wide range of fixed and portable gas detectors to keep workers safe. Crowcon’s portable range comprises T4, Gas-Pro, Clip SGD and Gasman all of which offer reliable, transportable detection capacities for a variety of gases. Our fixed gas detectors are used where reliability, dependability and lack of false alarms are instrumental to efficient and effective protection of assets and areas, and include the Xgard and Xgard Bright. Combined with a variety of our fixed detectors, our gas detection control panels offer a flexible range of solutions that measure flammable, toxic and oxygen gases, report their presence and activate alarms or associated equipment, for the farming and agriculture industry we often recommend our Gasmaster, Vortex and Addressable Controllers panels.

To find out more on the gas hazards in farming and agriculture visit our industry page for more information.

An Introduction to the Marine Industry

The marine sector is a global industry and is wide ranging in terms of its applications and different types of vessels including FPSO vessels, ferries and submarines. 

The type of gas hazards that will be present, and subsequently the gas detection requirements, are heavily dependent on the application and the type of marine vessel being used. In this blog we’ll take a look at some of the most common gas hazards within the marine industry and in which applications they are most likely to occur. 

Floating Production, Storage, Offloading Units and Tankers 

Floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) units, which are used in the production, processing and storage of oil, are home to many potential gas hazards. 

Firstly, there is the risk of fire and explosion hazards, which can lead to catastrophic damage and loss of life.  Combustible gas risks that may be present include methane, hydrogen, propane, LPG, solvents and gasoline fumes among others. Due to this risk, flammable gas detection is essential on FPSO vessels.  

FPSO units also have confined spaces in the form of inverted tanks or voids, meaning oxygen detectors are a must for these areas to protect from the risks of oxygen depletion which can cause mental confusion, nausea, weakness and in extreme cases loss of consciousness and death. 

Ferries 

Whilst ferries may not be home to as many gas hazards as other vessels, there are certainly still some to be aware of. On vehicle carrying ferries, for example, there may be a large build-up of emissions from vehicle exhausts which contain harmful gases such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Both gases are capable of causing damage to human health, causing issues such as nausea, confusion and disorientation, inflammation of the airways and increased vulnerability to respiratory infection. 

Submarines 

Submarines may be used for a variety of purposes including salvage and exploration operations, marine science and facility inspection and maintenance. On these vessels there may be a requirement for hydrogen detection in battery storage rooms. Whilst hydrogen is a non-toxic gas, if it builds up in environments without sufficient airflow it can displace oxygen in the air leading to risk of oxygen depletion. 

Our solutions 

Gas detection can be provided in both fixed and portable forms. Our portable gas detectors protect people against a wide range of gas hazards, and include T4xGas-ProT4 and Gas-Pro TK. Our fixed gas detectors are used where reliability, dependability and lack of false alarms are instrumental to efficient and effective protection of assets and areas. Now available through Crowcon, the Sensitron SMART S-MS MED fixed detector has been designed specifically for use in marine environments. The SMART S-MS MED is fully marine certified by Lloyd’s Register in accordance with MED/3.54 Regulation whilst also being SIL-2 certified. Also available is the Multiscan++MED control panel, also MED and SIL-2 certified, able to manage and monitor up to 64 gas detectors. 

To find out more on the gas hazards in the marine sector visit our industry page for more information.

Gas Hazards in Water Treatment

Water is vital to our daily lives, both for personal and domestic use and industrial/commercial applications. It is everywhere, promoting some chemical reactions and inhibiting others. Being used to clean surfaces, carry chemicals to where they are used and to carry unwanted chemicals away. Do anything and you create a gas somewhere in some quantity. Do anything with water there are so many permutations of things that can come together and react, dissolved gases that can come out of solution, dissolved liquids and solids that can react to generate gases. Additionally, you must determine what gases you generate when you collect, clean, store, transport or use water. Gas detectors must be chosen to suit the specific environment in which they operate, in this case highly humid, often dirty, but rarely outside the temperature range 4 to 30 degrees C. All the risks are present in these complex environments, with multiple toxic and flammable gas hazards and often the additional risk of oxygen depletion.

Gas Hazards

Apart from common gas hazards known in the industry; methane, hydrogen sulphide, and oxygen, there are bi-product gas hazards and cleaning material gas hazards that occur from purifying chemicals such as ammonia, chlorine, chlorine dioxide or ozone that are used in the decontamination of the waste and effluent water, or to remove microbes from clean water. There is great potential for many toxic or explosive gases to exist as a result of the chemicals used in the water industry. And added to these are chemicals that may be spilled or dumped into the waste system from industry, farming or building work.

Chlorine (Cl2) gas appears yellow green in colour, used to sterilise drinking water. However, most chlorine is used in the chemical industry with typical applications including water treatment as well as within the plastics and cleaning agents. Chlorine gas can be recognised by its pungent, irritating odour, which is like the odour of bleach. The strong smell may provide adequate warning to people that they are exposed. Cl2 itself is not flammable, but it can react explosively or form flammable compounds with other chemicals such as turpentine and ammonia.

Ammonia (NH3) is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is a colourless and pungent gas, also known to be highly soluble when in contact with water. This means that NH3 dissolves quickly into the water supply. Found at very low levels in humans and in nature. It is also often used in some household cleaning solutions. Although NH3 has many benefits, it can be corrosive and dangerous in certain circumstances. Ammonia can enter wastewater from several different sources, including urine, manure, cleaning chemicals, process chemicals and amino acid products. If NH3 enters a copper piping system, it can cause extensive corrosion. If NH3 enters water, its toxicity varies depending on the exact pH of the water. It is possible for ammonia to break down into ammonium ions, which can react with other compounds present.

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is an oxidising gas commonly used to disinfect drinking water. When used in very small quantities, it is safe and does not lead to significant health risks. But ClO2 is a strong disinfectant that kills bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and when used in high doses, it can be dangerous to people since it can damage red blood cells and the lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

Ozone (O3) is a gas with an antiseptic smell and no colour that, mostly, forms naturally in the environment. When inhaled, ozone can have a range of harmful effects on the body. As it is colourless gas it is difficult to trace without an effective detection system in place. Even when relatively small amounts are inhaled, the gas can have a damaging impact on the respiratory tract, causing inflammation and chest pain, alongside coughing, shortness of breath and throat irritation. It can also act as a trigger causing diseases such as asthma to worsen.

Confined Space Entry

The pipelines used to transport water require regular cleaning and safety checks; during these operations, portable multi-gas monitors are used to protect the workforce. Pre-entry checks must be completed prior to entering any confined space and commonly O2, CO, H2S and CH4 are monitored. Confined spaces are small, so portable monitors must be compact and unobtrusive for the user, yet able to withstand the wet and dirty environments in which they must perform. Clear and prompt indication of any increase in gas monitored (or any decrease for oxygen) is of paramount importance – loud and bright alarms are effective in raising the alarm to the user.

Legislation

European Commission Directive 2017/164 established an increased list of indicative occupational exposure limit values (IOELVs). IOELV are health-based, non-binding values, derived from the most recent scientific data available and considering the availability of reliable measurement techniques. Non-binding but best practice. The list includes carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, manganese, diacetyl and many other chemicals. The list is based on Council Directive 98/24/EC that considers the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents in the workplace. For any chemical agent for which an IOELV has been set at Union level, Member States are required to establish a national occupational exposure limit value. They also are required to take into account the Union limit value, determining the nature of the national limit value in accordance with national legislation and practice. Member States will be able to benefit from a transitional period ending at the latest on 21 August 2023.

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) state that each year several workers will suffer from at least one episode of work-related illness. Although, most illnesses are relatively mild cases of gastroenteritis, there is also a risk for potentially fatal diseases, such as leptospirosis (Weil’s disease) and hepatitis. Even though these are reported to the HSE, there could be significant under-reporting as there is often failure to recognise the link between illness and work.

Under domestic law of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, employers are responsible for ensuring the safety of their employees and others. This responsibility is reinforced by regulations.

The Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 applies where the assessment identifies risks of serious injury from work in confined spaces. These regulations contain the following key duties:

  • Avoid entry to confined spaces, e.g., by doing the work from the outside.
  • If entry to a confined space is unavoidable, follow a safe system of work.
  • Put in place adequate emergency arrangements before the work start.

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 requires employers and self-employed people to carry out a suitable and sufficient assessment of the risks for all work activities for the purpose of deciding what measures are necessary for safety. For work in confined spaces this means identifying the hazards present, assessing the risks and determining what precautions to take.

Our solution

Elimination of these gas hazards is virtually impossible, so permanent workers and contractors must depend on reliable gas detection equipment to protect them. Gas detection can be provided in both fixed and portable forms. Our portable gas detectors protect people against a wide range of gas hazards, and include T4x, Clip SGD, Gasman, Tetra 3, Gas-Pro, T4 and Detective+. Our fixed gas detectors are used where reliability, dependability and lack of false alarms are instrumental to efficient and effective protection of assets and areas, and include the Xgard, Xgard Bright and IRmax product ranges. Combined with a variety of our fixed detectors, our gas detection control panels offer a flexible range of solutions that measure flammable, toxic and oxygen gases, report their presence and activate alarms or associated equipment, for the wastewater industry we often recommend our Gasmaster panel.

To find out more on the gas hazards in wastewater visit our industry page for more information.

Gas Hazards in Wastewater

Water is vital to our daily lives, both for personal and domestic use and industrial/commercial applications making water sites both numerous and widespread. Despite the quantity and location of water sites, only two environments predominate, and these are quite specific. They are clean water and wastewater. This blog details gas risks encountered at wastewater sites and how they may be mitigated. 

The wastewater industry is always wet, with temperatures between 4 and 20oc near the water and rarely far from that limited temperature range even away from the immediate location of the wastewater. 90%+ relative humidity, 12 +/- 8oc, atmospheric pressure, with multiple toxic and flammable gas hazards and the risk of oxygen depletion. Gas detectors must be chosen to suit the specific environment in which they operate, and whilst high humidity is generally challenging to all instrumentation, the constant pressure, moderate temperatures and narrow temperature range is a far greater benefit to safety instrumentation. 

Gas Hazards  

The main gases of concern in wastewater treatment plants are: 

  • Methane 
  • Hydrogen sulphide 
  • Carbon dioxide  
  • Reduced levels of oxygen 

Hydrogen sulphide, methane and carbon dioxide are the by-products of the decomposition of organic materials that exist in the waste flows feeding the plant. The build-up of these gases may lead to the lack of oxygen, or in some cases, explosion when coupled with a source of ignition. 

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

Hydrogen sulphide is a common product of the biodegradation of organic matter; pockets of H2S can collect in rotting vegetation, or sewage itself, and be released when disturbed. Workers in sewerage and wastewater plants and pipework can be overcome by H2S, with fatal consequences. Its high toxicity is the main danger of H2S. Prolonged exposure to 2-5 parts per million (ppm) H2S can cause nausea and headaches and bring tears to the eyes. H2S is an anaesthetic, hence at 20ppm, symptoms include fatigue, headaches, irritability, dizziness, temporary loss of the sense of smell and impaired memory. Severity of symptoms increase with concentration as nerves shut down, through coughing, conjunctivitis, collapse and rapid unconsciousness. Exposure at higher levels can result in rapid knock down and death. Prolonged exposure to low levels of H2S may cause chronic illness or can also kill. Because of this, many gas monitors will have both instantaneous and TWA (Time-Weighted Average) alerts. 

Methane (CH4)

Methane is a colourless, highly flammable gas that is the primary component of natural gas, also referred to as biogas. It can be stored and/or transported under pressure as a liquid-gas. CH4 is a greenhouse gas that is also encountered in normal atmospheric conditions at a rate of approximately 2 parts per million (ppm). High exposure can lead to slurred speech, vision problems and memory loss. 

Oxygen (O2)

The normal concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere is approximately 20.9% volume. In the absence of adequate ventilation, the level of oxygen can be reduced surprisingly quickly by breathing and combustion processes. Olevels may also be depleted due to dilution by other gases such as carbon dioxide (also a toxic gas), nitrogen or helium, and chemical absorption by corrosion processes and similar reactions. Oxygen sensors should be used in environments where any of these potential risks exist. When locating oxygen sensors, consideration needs to be given to the density of the diluting gas and the “breathing” zone (nose level). 

Safety Considerations 

Risk assessment

Risk assessment is critical, as you need to be aware of the environment that you are entering and thus working in. Therefore, understanding the applications and identifying the risks regarding all safety aspects. Focusing on gas monitoring, as part of the risk assessment, you need to be clear on what gases may be present. 

Fit for purpose

There is a variety of applications within the water treatment process, giving the need to monitor multiple gases, including carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, chlorine, methane, oxygen, ozone and chlorine dioxide. Gas detectors are available for single or multiple gas monitoring, making them practical for different applications as well as making sure that, if conditions change (such as sludge is stirred up, causing a sudden increase in hydrogen sulphide and flammable gas levels), the worker is still protected. 

Legislation  

European Commission Directive 2017/164 issued in January 2017, established a new list of indicative occupational exposure limit values (IOELVs). IOELV are health-based, non-binding values, derived from the most recent scientific data available and considering the availability of reliable measurement techniques. The list includes carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, manganese, diacetyl and many other chemicals. The list is based on Council Directive 98/24/EC that considers the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents in the workplace. For any chemical agent for which an IOELV has been set at Union level, Member States are required to establish a national occupational exposure limit value. They also are required to take into account the Union limit value, determining the nature of the national limit value in accordance with national legislation and practice. Member States will be able to benefit from a transitional period ending at the latest on 21 August 2023. 

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) state that each year several workers will suffer from at least one episode of work-related illness. Although, most illnesses are relatively mild cases of gastroenteritis, there is also a risk for potentially fatal diseases, such as leptospirosis (Weil’s disease) and hepatitis. Even though these are reported to the HSE, there could be significant under-reporting as there is often failure to recognise the link between illness and work. 

Our solutions  

Elimination of these gas hazards is virtually impossible, so permanent workers and contractors must depend on reliable gas detection equipment to protect them. Gas detection can be provided in both fixed and portable forms. Our portable gas detectors protect against a wide range of gas hazards, these include T4x, Clip SGD, Gasman, Tetra 3, Gas-Pro, T4 and Detective+. Our fixed gas detectors are used where reliability, dependability and lack of false alarms are instrumental to efficient and effective gas detection, these include Xgard, Xgard Bright and IRmax. Combined with a variety of our fixed detectors, our gas detection control panels offer a flexible range of solutions that measure flammable, toxic and oxygen gases, report their presence and activate alarms or associated equipment, for the wastewater industry our panels include Gasmaster.   

To find out more on the gas hazards in wastewater visit our industry page for more information. 

Are there dangers of gas in telecommunications? 

The telecommunication industry contains includes cable providers, internet service providers, satellite providers and telephone providers and confined spaces. Even simple above ground termination boxes may contain gas hazards generated from the cable runs underground. Gases such as methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide can run through cable trunking accumulating in termination boxes and manifesting as hazards when the termination box is opened.

The risk of danger occurs when a worker is sent to carry out tasks involving opening up of enclosed volumes that may not have been accessed for a period of time. All telecommunications companies have these in abundance.

What are the Dangers?

Those working in the telecommunications industry are at risk from a variety of gaseous dangers, many of which could cause harm to their health and safety. Though less obvious, these risks should be taken as seriously as falls from heights or electrocution, and they require a similar level of training. A worker must not climb to an elevated position without a harness, similarly they shouldn’t be accessing confined spaces without appropriate confined space training. Awareness of the dangers present and minimising the risks that could lead to adverse effects is a well-known safety principle. Training and proper PPE can help protect workers from these hazards.

Gas Hazards and Risks

As there are many confined spaces in the telecommunication industry workers are at risk from the presence of hazardous and toxic gases there. Hazardous gases can also be linked to seemingly simple above-ground termination boxes. Gases such as methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide sometimes travel through the cable trunking, and therefore, when the termination box is opened, a build-up of these gases can be released.

Enclosed or partially enclosed spaces with high levels of methane in the air reduce the amount of oxygen available to breathe and therefore can cause mood changes, speech and vision problems, memory loss, nausea, sickness, facial flushing and headaches. In more severe cases and prolonged exposure, there may be changes in breathing and heart rate, balance problems, numbness, and unconsciousness. There is also a risk of fire as methane is highly flammable.

Carbon monoxide (CO) consumption also poses serious health issues to workers, with those ingesting the toxic substance facing flu-like symptoms, chest pain, confusion, fainting arrhythmias, seizures, or even worse health effects for high or long lasting exposures. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) poisoning causes similar issues, as well as delirium, tremors, convulsions, and skin and eye irritation. Carbon dioxide is an asphyxiant gas that can displace oxygen and hance dizziness.

Our solution

Gas detection can be provided in both fixed and portable forms. Our portable gas detectors protect against a wide range of gas hazards, these include Tetra 3 and T4. Our fixed gas detectors are used where reliability, dependability and lack of false alarms are instrumental to efficient and effective gas detection, these include Xgard and Xgard Bright. Combined with a variety of our fixed detectors, our gas detection control panels offer a flexible range of solutions which are able to measure flammable, toxic and oxygen gases, report their presence and activate alarms or associated equipment, for the telecommunication industry our panels include Gasmaster.

To find out more on the dangers of gas hazards in telecommunication visit our industry page for more information.

Transportation and Key Gas Challenges 

The transportation sector is one of the largest industries in the world, spanning a variety of applications. The sector offers services concerned with the movement of people and cargo of all types, across air freight and logistics, airlines and airport services, road and rail, transportation infrastructure, trucking, highways, rail tracks, and marine ports and services.

Gas hazards during transportation  

The transport of dangerous goods is regulated in order to prevent, accidents involving people or property, damage to the environment. There a numerous gas hazards including the transportation of hazardous material, air conditioning emissions, cabin combustion and hangar leaks. 

The transportation of hazardous materials poses a risk to those involved. There are nine classification areas specified by the United Nations (UN) including explosives, gases, flammable liquids and solids, oxidising substances, toxic substances, radioactive materials, corrosive substances and miscellaneous goods. With the risk of an accident occurring being more likely when transporting these materials. Although the biggest cause for concern within the industry being the transportation of non-flammable non-toxic gas is asphyxiation. As a slow leak in a storage container can drain all of the oxygen in the air and cause the individuals in the environment to suffocate. 

Leaks within aircraft hangars and fuel storage areas of highly explosive aviation fuel is an area that must be monitored to prevent fires, equipment damage, and at the worst fatalities. It is essential to choose a suitable gas detection solution that focuses on the aircraft rather than the aircraft hangar, avoids false alarms, and can monitor large areas. 

Not only is it the external environment that faces gas risks in transportation, those working in the sector also face similar challenges. Air conditioning emissions poses a gas hazard threat due to the burning of fossil fuels leading to a subsequent emission of carbon monoxide (CO). high levels of CO in a confined area such as a vehicle cabin, of more than the normal level (30ppm) or an oxygen level below normal (19%) can result in dizziness, feeling and being sick, tiredness and confusion, stomach pain, shortness of breath and difficulty breathing. Therefore, proper ventilation in these spaces with the assistance of a gas detector is paramount to ensuring the safe of those working in the transportation industry. 

Similarly, in the air sector cabin combustion and fuselage fires, in the central portion of an airplane, poses a real threat. Although flame retardant materials are applied, if a fire does start the cabin’s trim and fittings can still generate toxic gases and vapours that could be more dangerous than the fire itself. Inhalation of harmful gases caused by a fire in these environments tend to be the main direct cause of fatalities.

Transportation Standards and Certifications 

Each mode of transport, (road, rail, air, sea and inland waterway) has its own regulations but they are generally harmonized with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), enacted in the USA in 1975, states that regardless of the type of transportation, any company whose goods fall into one of the nine categories specified as hazardous by the UN, must comply with the regulations or risk fines and penalties. 

Those working in the transport sector in the UK must comply with the requirements laid out in the UN Model Regulations which assigns each dangerous substance or article a specific class that correlates how dangerous it is. It does this via the packing group (PG) classification, according to PG I, PG II or PG III. 

From an European standpoint the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) governs the regulations on how to classify, pack, label and certify dangerous goods. It also comprises vehicle and tank requirements and other operational requirements. The Carriage of Dangerous Goods and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment Regulations (2009) also is relevant in England, Wales and Scotland. 

Other relevant regulations include the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Navigation (ADN), the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) and The International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) Technical Instruction.

Our solution 

Gas detection can be provided in both fixed and portable forms. Our portable gas detectors protect against a wide range of gas hazards, these include T4x, Clip SGD, Gasman, Tetra 3, Gas-pro, and T4. Our fixed gas detectors are used where reliability, dependability and lack of false alarms are instrumental to efficient and effective gas detection, these include Xgard, Xgard Bright, and IRmax. Combined with a variety of our fixed detectors, our gas detection control panels offer a flexible range of solutions which are able to measure flammable, toxic and oxygen gases, report their presence and activate alarms or associated equipment, for the transportation industry our panels include Gasmaster and Vortex 

To find out more on the dangers of gas hazards in transportation visit our industry page for more information.