What’s the difference between a pellistor and an IR sensor?

Sensors play a key role when it comes to monitoring flammable gases and vapours. Environment, response time and temperature range are just some of the things to consider when deciding which technology is best.

In this blog, we’re highlighting the differences between pellistor (catalytic) sensors and infrared (IR) sensors, why there are pros and cons to both technologies, and how to know which is best to suit different environments.

Pellistor sensor

A pellistor gas sensor is a device used to detect combustible gases or vapours that fall within the explosive range to warn of rising gas levels. The sensor is a coil of platinum wire with a catalyst inserted inside to form a small active bead which lowers the temperature at which gas ignites around it. When a combustible gas is present the temperature and resistance of the bead increases in relation to the resistance of the inert reference bead. The difference in resistance can be measured, allowing measurement of gas present. Because of the catalysts and beads, a pellistor sensor is also known as a catalytic or catalytic bead sensor.

Originally created in the 1960’s by British scientist and inventor, Alan Baker, pellistor sensors were initially designed as a solution to the long-running flame safety lamp and canary techniques. More recently, the devices are used in industrial and underground applications such as mines or tunnelling, oil refineries and oil rigs.

Pellistor sensors are relatively lower in cost due to differences in the level of technology in comparison to IR sensors, however they may be required to be replaced more frequently.

With a linear output corresponding to the gas concentration, correction factors can be used to calculate the approximate response of pellistors to other flammable gases, which can make pellistors a good choice when there are multiple flammable vapours present.

Not only this but pellistors within fixed detectors with mV bridge outputs such as the Xgard type 3 are highly suited to areas that are hard to reach as calibration adjustments can take place at the local control panel.

On the other hand, pellistors struggle in environments where there is low or little oxygen, as the combustion process by which they work, requires oxygen. For this reason, confined space instruments which contain catalytic pellistor type LEL sensors often include a sensor for measuring oxygen.

In environments where compounds contain silicon, lead, sulphur and phosphates the sensor is susceptible to poisoning (irreversible loss of sensitivity) or inhibition (reversible loss of sensitivity), which can be a hazard to people in the workplace.

If exposed to high gas concentrations, pellistor sensors can be damaged. In such situations, pellistors do not ‘fail safe’, meaning no notification is given when an instrument fault is detected. Any fault can only be identified through bump testing prior to each use to ensure that performance is not being degraded.

 

IR sensor

Infrared sensor technology is based on the principle that Infrared (IR) light of a particular wavelength will be absorbed by the target gas. Typically there are two emitters within a sensor generating beams of IR light: a measurement beam with a wavelength that will be absorbed by the target gas, and a reference beam which will not be absorbed. Each beam is of equal intensity and is deflected by a mirror inside the sensor onto a photo-receiver. The resulting difference in intensity, between the reference and measurement beam, in the presence of the target gas is used to measure the concentration of gas present.

In many cases, infrared (IR) sensor technology can have a number of advantages over pellistors or be more reliable in areas where pellistor-based sensor performance can be impaired- including low oxygen and inert environments. Just the beam of infrared interacts with the surrounding gas molecules, giving the sensor the advantage of not facing the threat of poisoning or inhibition.

IR technology provides fail-safe testing. This means that if the infrared beam was to fail, the user would be notified of this fault.

Gas-Pro TK uses a dual IR sensor – the best technology for the specialist environments where standard gas detectors just won’t work, whether tank purging or gas freeing.

An example of one of our IR based detectors is the Crowcon Gas-Pro IR, ideal for the oil and gas industry, with the availability to detect methane, pentane or propane in potentially explosive, low oxygen environments where pellistor sensors may struggle. We also use a dual range %LEL and %Volume sensor in our Gas-Pro TK, which is suitable for measuring and switching between both measurements so it’s always safely operating to the correct parameter.

However, IR sensors aren’t all perfect as they only have a linear output to target gas; the response of an IR sensor to other flammable vapours then the target gas will be non-linear.

Like pellistors are susceptible to poisoning, IR sensors are susceptible to severe mechanical and thermal shock and also strongly affected by gross pressure changes. Additionally, infrared sensors cannot be used to detect Hydrogen gas, therefore we suggest using pellistors or electromechanical sensors in this circumstance.

The prime objective for safety is to select the best detection technology to minimise hazards in the workplace. We hope that by clearly identifying the differences between these two sensors we can raise awareness on how various industrial and hazardous environments can remain safe.

For further guidance on pellistor and IR sensors, you can download our whitepaper which includes illustrations and diagrams to help determine the best technology for your application.

You won’t find Crowcon sensors sleeping on the job

MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) sensors have been seen as one of the most recent solutions for tackling detection of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in fluctuating temperatures from up to 50°C down to the mid-twenties, as well as humid climates such as the Middle East.

However, users and gas detection professionals have realised MOS sensors are not the most reliable detection technology. This blog covers why this technology can prove difficult to maintain and what issues users can face.

One of the major drawbacks of the technology is the liability of the sensor “going to sleep” when it doesn’t encounter gas for a period of time. Of course, this is a huge safety risk for workers in the area… no-one wants to face a gas detector that ultimately doesn’t detect gas.

MOS sensors require a heater to equalise, enabling them to produce a consistent reading. However, when initially switched on, the heater takes time to warm up, causing a significant delay between turning on the sensors and it responding to hazardous gas. MOS manufacturers therefore recommend users to allow the sensor to equilibrate for 24-48 hours before calibration. Some users may find this a hinderance for production, as well as extended time for servicing and maintenance.

The heater delay isn’t the only problem. It uses a lot of power which poses an additional issue of dramatic changes of temperature in the DC power cable, causing changes in voltage as the detector head and inaccuracies in gas level reading. 

As its metal oxide semiconductor name suggests, the sensors are based around semiconductors which are recognised to drift with changes in humidity- something that is not ideal for the humid Middle Eastern climate. In other industries, semiconductors are often encased in epoxy resin to avoid this, however in a gas sensor this coating would the gas detection mechanism as the gas couldn’t reach the semiconductor. The device is also open to the acidic environment created by the local sand in the Middle East, effecting conductivity and accuracy of gas read-out.

Another significant safety implication of a MOS sensor is that with output at near-zero levels of H2S can be false alarms. Often the sensor is used with a level of “zero suppression” at the control panel. This means that the control panel may show a zero read-out for some time after levels of H2S have begun to rise. This late registering of low-level gas presence can then delay the warning of a serious gas leak, opportunity for evacuation and the extreme risk of lives.

MOS sensors excel in reacting quickly to H2S, therefore the need for a sinter counteracts this benefit. Due to H2S being a “sticky” gas, it is able to be adsorbed onto surfaces including those of sinters, in result slowing down the rate at which gas reaches the detection surface.

To tackle the drawbacks of MOS sensors, we’ve revisited and improved on the electrochemical technology with our new High Temperature (HT) H2S sensor for XgardIQ. The new developments of our sensor allow operation of up to 70°C at 0-95%rh- a significant difference against other manufacturers claiming detection of up to 60°C, especially under the harsh Middle Eastern environments.

Our new HT H2S sensor has been proven to be a reliable and resilient solution for the detection of H2S at high temperatures- a solution that doesn’t fall asleep on the job!

Click here for more information on our new High Temperature (HT) H2S sensor for XgardIQ.

An ingenious solution to the problem of high temperature H2S

Due to extreme heat in the Middle East climbing up to 50°C in the height of summer, the necessity for reliable gas detection is critical. In this blog, we’re focusing on the requirement for detection of hydrogen sulphide (H2S)- a long running challenge for the Middle East’s gas detection industry.

By combining a new trick with old technology, we’ve got the answer to reliable gas detection for environments in the harsh Middle Eastern climate. Our new High Temperature (HT) H2S sensor for XgardIQ has been revisited and improved by our team of Crowcon experts by using a combination of two ingenious adaptations to its original design.

In traditional H2S sensors, detection is based on electrochemical technology, where electrodes are used to detect changes induced in an electrolyte by the presence of the target gas. However, high temperatures combined with low humidity causes the electrolyte to dry out, impairing sensor performance so that the sensor has to be replaced regularly; meaning high replacement costs, time and efforts.

Making the new sensor so advanced from its predecessor is its ability to retain the moisture levels within the sensor, preventing evaporation even in high temperature climates. The updated sensor is based on electrolytic gel, adapted to make it more hygroscopic and avoiding dehydration for longer.

As well as this, the pore in the sensor housing has been reduced, limiting the moisture from escaping. This chart indicated weight loss which is indicative of moisture loss. When stored at 55°C or 65°C for a year just 3% of weight is lost. Another typical sensor would lose 50% of its weight in 100 days in the same conditions.

For optimal leak detection, our remarkable new sensor also features an optional remote sensor housing, while the transmitter’s displays screen and push-button controls are positioned for safe and easy access for operators up to 15metres away.

 

The results of our new HT H2S sensor for XgardIQ speak for themselves, with an operating environment of up to 70°C at 0-95%rh, as well featuring a 0-200ppm and T90 response time of less than 30 seconds. Unlike other sensors for detecting H2S, it offers a life expectancy of over 24 months, even in tough climates like the Middle East.

The answer to the Middle East’s gas detection challenges fall in the hands of our new sensor, providing its users with cost-effective and reliable performance.

Click here for more information about the Crowcon HT H2S sensor.

Have you ever thought about the dangers behind your favourite beverage?

Beer Production

It’s only natural for us to associate the need for gas detection in the oil and gas, and steel industries, but have you thought about the need to detect hazardous gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen in the brewing and beverage industry?

Maybe it’s because nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are naturally present in the atmosphere. It could be that CO2 is still under-valued as a hazardous gas. Although in the atmosphere CO2 remains at very low concentrations – around 400 parts per million (ppm), greater care is needed in brewery and cellar environments where in confined spaces, the risk of gas canisters or associated equipment leaking could lead to elevated levels. As little as 0.5% volume (5000ppm) of CO2 is a toxic health hazard. Nitrogen on the other hand, can displace oxygen.

CO2 is colourless, odourless and has a density which is heavier than air, meaning pockets of CO2 gather low on the ground gradually increasing in size. CO2 is generated in huge amounts during fermentation and can pose a risk in confined spaces such as vats, cellars or cylinder storage areas, this can be fatal to workers in the surrounding environment, therefore Health & Safety managers must ensure the correct equipment and detectors are in place.

Brewers often use nitrogen in multiple phases of the brewing and dispensing process to put bubbles into beer, particularly stouts, pale ales and porters, it also ensures the beer doesn’t oxidise or pollute the next batch with harsh flavours. Nitrogen helps push the liquid from one tank to another, as well as offer the potential to be injected into kegs or barrels, pressurising them ready for storage and shipment. This gas is not toxic, but does displace oxygen in the atmosphere, which can be a danger if there is a gas leak which is why accurate gas detection is critical.

Gas detection can be provided in the form of both fixed and portable. Installation of a fixed gas detector can benefit a larger space such as plant rooms to provide continuous area and staff protection 24 hours a day. However, for worker safety in and around cylinder storage area and in spaces designated as a confined space, a portable detector can be more suited. This is especially true for pubs and beverage dispensing outlets for the safety of workers and those who are unfamiliar in the environment such as delivery drivers, sales teams or equipment technicians. The portable unit can easily be clipped to belts or clothing and will detect pockets of CO2 using alarms and visual signals, indicating that the user should immediately vacate the area.

At Crowcon, we’re dedicated in growing a safer, cleaner, healthier future for everyone, every day by providing best in class gas safety solutions. It’s vital that once gas detectors are deployed, employees should not get complacent, and should be making the necessary checks an essential part of each working day as early detection can be the difference between life and death.

Quick facts and tips about gas detection in breweries:

  • Nitrogen and CO2 are both colourless and odourless. CO2 being 5 times heavier than air, making it a silent and deadly gas.
  • Anyone entering a tank or other confined space must be equipped with a suitable gas detector.
  • Early detection can be the difference between life and death.

Helping you stay safe during the BBQ season

Who doesn’t love a summer BBQ? Come rain or shine we light up our BBQs with usually the only worries being whether it will rain, or the sausages are fully cooked through.

While these are important, (especially making sure the sausages are cooked!) many of us are completely unaware of the potential risks.

Carbon monoxide is a gas that has received its fair share of publicity with many of us installing detectors in our homes and businesses, but completely unaware carbon monoxide is associated with our BBQs.

If the weather is poor, we may decide to barbeque in the garage doorway or under a tent or canopy. Some of us may even bring our BBQs into the tent after use.  These can all be potentially fatal as the carbon monoxide collects in these confined areas.

Equally with a propane or butane gas canister, we store in our garages, sheds and even our homes unaware that there is a risk of a potentially deadly combination of an enclosed space, a gas leak and a spark from an electrical device.  All of which could cause an explosion.

All of that said, BBQs are here to stay and if we use them safely, are a great way to spend a summer afternoon.  So, here is a selection of facts and tips from our safety team at Crowcon which we hope will help you enjoy a safe and delicious summer ahead!

 

Quick facts and tips about BBQ charcoals:

  • Carbon monoxide is a colourless and odourless gas so just because we can’t smell or see it, doesn’t mean it’s not there
  • Carbon monoxide is a by-product of burning fossil fuels, which include charcoal and BBQ gas
  • Always use your BBQ in a well-ventilated open area as it can accumulate to toxic levels in enclosed spaces
  • Never bring a charcoal into a tent, even if it seems cold. Remember a smouldering BBQ will still give off carbon monoxide
  • Be aware and act quickly if someone experiences the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning which include headaches, dizziness, breathlessness, nausea, confusion, collapse and unconsciousness. These symptoms can be potentially fatal

 

Quick facts and tips about gas cannisters:

  • Gas barbecues tend to use propane, butane or LPG (which is a mixture of the two)
  • Gas BBQs have holes in the bottom to prevent a build-up of gas. This is because gas is heavier than air so will accumulate in low areas or fill a space from the bottom up
  • To avoid the accumulation of gas, cannisters should always be stored outside, upright, in a well-ventilated area, away from heat sources, and away from enclosed low spaces
  • If you store your BBQ in the garage, make sure you disconnect the gas cannister and keep this outside
  • When you are using your BBQ, keep the cannister to one side so it isn’t underneath and close to the heat source and position the BBQ in an open space
  • Always keep the cannister away from ignition sources when changing cannisters
  • Always make sure you turn off the gas at the BBQ as well as on the regulator on the cannister, after use

 

Explosion hazards in inerted tanks and how to avoid them

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is known for being extremely toxic, as well as highly corrosive. In an inerted tank environment, it poses an additional and serious hazard combustion which, it is suspected, has been the cause of serious explosions in the past.

Hydrogen sulphide can be present in %vol levels in “sour” oil or gas. Fuel can also be turned ‘sour’ by the action of sulphate-reducing bacteria found in sea water, often present in cargo holds of tankers. It is therefore important to continue to monitor the level of H2S, as it can change, particularly at sea. This H2S can increase the likelihood of a fire if the situation is not properly managed.

Tanks are generally lined with iron (sometimes zinc-coated). Iron rusts, creating iron oxide (FeO). In an inerted headspace of a tank, iron oxide can react with H2S to form iron sulphide (FeS). Iron sulphide is a pyrophore; which means that it can spontaneously ignite in the presence of oxygen

Excluding the elements of fire

A tank full of oil or gas is an obvious fire hazard under the right circumstances. The three elements of fire are fuel, oxygen and an ignition source. Without these three things, a fire can’t start. Air is around 21% oxygen. Therefore, a common means to control the risk of a fire in a tank is to remove as much air as possible by flushing the air out of the tank with an inert gas, such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide. During tank unloading, care is taken that fuel is replaced with inert gas rather than air. This removes the oxygen and prevents fire starting.

By definition, there is not enough oxygen in an inerted environment for a fire to start. But at some point, air will have to be let into the tank – for maintenance staff to safety enter, for example. There is now the chance for the three elements of fire coming together. How is it to be controlled?

  • Oxygen has to be allowed in
  • There may be present FeS, which the oxygen will cause to spark
  • The element that can be controlled is fuel.

If all the fuel has been removed and the combination of air and FeS causes a spark, it can’t do any harm.

Monitoring the elements

From the above, it is obvious how important it is to keep track of all the elements that could cause a fire in these fuel tanks. Oxygen and fuel can be directly monitored using an appropriate gas detector, like Gas-Pro TK. Designed for these specialist environments, Gas-Pro TK automatically copes with measuring a tank full of gas (measured in %vol) and a tank nearly empty of gas (measured in %LEL). Gas-Pro TK can tell you when oxygen levels are low enough to be safe to load fuel or high enough for staff to safely enter the tank. Another important use for Gas-Pro TK is to monitor for H2S, to allow you judge the likely presence of the pryophore, iron sulphide.

Servicing for safety… A visit to the oil refinery

Working in the office makes it easy to focus on the individual tasks and get detached from how our products are making a difference to people’s lives. One of our customers was kind enough to facilitate an onsite visit so that Andrea (our Halma Future Leader on a marketing placement) could see first-hand how our products are used and who the end users are. This meant a visit to an oil refinery to see where our Crowcon portable gas detectors are used.


“The main thing that surprised me was the sheer size of the site. The oil refinery was very spaced out and it took us 10 minutes to walk from the entrance of the site to where the Crowcon engineer’s based. The engineers and employees around different parts of the refinery wore Hi Vis jackets, big safety boots, hard hats and all appeared to have personal gas detectors. During a quick site tour, I learned the products of the oil refinery are not limited to gas or petrol, but also tar, asphalt, lubricants, washing up liquid, paraffin wax and much more.

The products are all stored in big containers with pipes all over the site. Most of the products are highly flammable which explains the big focus on safety. In the distance, there were a few dome shaped containers which are pressurised vessels. If one of them were to explode, it would have a 10 mile blast radius. Suddenly I had the urge to leave and drive about 10 miles.

Crowcon’s engineer base was full of orange T4s, Gas-Pros as well as an army of “Daleks”, I mean Detectives, awaiting calibration and service. While the harshness of this industrial environment was evident from their appearance, they were otherwise in good working order, and the service engineer worked through the devices quickly.

The end users think of them as a simple device they have to wear to do their job, and they like the simplicity and reliability of Crowcon devices. The Detectives get thrown around and Gas-Pros are almost black is comparison to the usual orange, which just showcases how important the robustness of our devices is. The dangers of this working environment are not generally a big concern to the users, this is everyday life to them. Our devices help ensure they go home after a tough shift. Ensuring the devices are functioning properly is down to the service engineers, and they need to think for the users to ensure that the devices are being used properly.

Seeing Crowcon’s devices being used and the number of times someone enquired if the devices are calibrated and ready to go back into action, highlighted just how important use of portables as part of the safety regime  is considered. “Quality” and “robust” is how users describe Crowcon products and even though they may now treat them like the life saving devices they are, the devices are regularly used and valued. They make a very flammable and dangerous environment a safer place to be.”

Changes to Workplace Exposure Limits (WELs)

What Are Work Place Exposure Limits?

Workplace exposure limits (WELs) provide a legal maximum level for harmful substances in order to control working conditions.

Directive and National Standards

The EU Directive 2017/164 establishes new ‘indicative occupational exposure limit values’ (IOELVs) for a number of toxic substances. The UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) has decided to change UK statutory limits to reflect the new IOELVs. This decision by the HSE has been taken to comply with Articles 2 and 7 of the Directive requiring Member States to establish the new occupational exposure limit values within national standards by August 21st 2018.

Gas Detector Alarm Thresholds

The exposure limits defined in this Directive 2017/164 are based on the risks of personal exposure: a workers’ exposure to toxic substances over time. The limits (configured into gas detectors as ‘TWA alarm levels’) are expressed over two time periods:

  • STEL (short-term exposure limit): a 15 minute limit
  • LTEL (long-term exposure limit): an 8-hour limit

Portable (personal) monitors are intended to be worn by the user near to their breathing zone so that the instrument can measure their exposure to gas. The instruments TWA (time-weighted) alarms will therefore alert the user when their exposure exceeds the limits set within the national standards.

Portable monitors can also be configured with ‘instantaneous’ alarms which activate immediately when the gas concentration exceeds the threshold. There are no standards to define alarm levels for instantaneous alarms, and so we have these generally set at the same thresholds as the TWA alarms. Some of the new TWA thresholds are low enough to make frequent false alarms a significant problem if they were also adopted for the instantaneous alarm setting. Therefore, new portable instruments will retain the current instantaneous alarm thresholds.

Fixed gas detectors only utilise ‘instantaneous’ alarms as they are not worn by the user and therefore cannot measure an individuals’ exposure to gas over time. Alarm levels for fixed detectors are often based on the TWA alarms as these are the only published guidelines. HSE document RR973 (Review of alarm setting for toxic gas and oxygen detectors) provides guidance on setting appropriate alarm levels for fixed detectors in consideration of site conditions and risk assessment. In some applications where there may be a background of gas it may be appropriate for fixed detector alarm levels to be set higher than those listed in EH40 to prevent repeated false alarms.

Re-configuration of Gas Detector Alarm Thresholds

Users of portable gas detectors who choose to adjust their instrument alarm thresholds to align with the Directive can easily do-so using a variety of accessories available from Crowcon. For full details of calibration and configuration accessories visit the product pages at www.crowcon.com.

Other documents you may find useful:

http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/priced/eh40.pdf

http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr973.html

 

Why enter into an apprenticeship at Crowcon?

“Working at Crowcon provides me with all the necessary skills required to become a competent engineer within the industry.” Noah Fisher

Apprenticeships are more than just a qualification. They allow you to become a professional in your chosen trade area, earning a wage whilst making a real impact in the business.

Whilst building your engineering career through an apprenticeship scheme at Crowcon, you’ll get experience in a work environment day-to-day in parallel with also gaining the benefits from experienced colleagues and mentors who can help you build your skills and take them straight into the workplace.

Key benefits to an apprenticeship:

 

  • Learn and earn money at the same time
  • Gain a nationally recognised qualification
  • Get relevant and practical experiences
  • Have full support, guidance and training
  • Broaden your knowledge and skillset
  • Network and collaborate with colleagues
  • Future career prospects

There is great scope to earn good rates of pay working as an engineer – across a variety of specialisms as your career develops.

Hear what some of our current apprentices have to say:

“For anyone looking to start an apprenticeship I would say go for it, as it has been a great experience for me because you get to carry out practical activities on site at Crowcon and the theory side at college on a day release type format. This is vital as it gives me the knowledge behind carrying out certain activities and it all links together with my everyday work.” Ryan Jones

 

“For someone who was interested in technology and how things work in different industries, it was inevitable that engineering would be sector in which I chose to pursue a career. However, I am also a person who wouldn’t prefer to be learning in a classroom every day. Therefore, apprenticeships allow you to work in real world environments giving the options to gain the essential experience needed for future careers choices.

Working for an established company like Crowcon provided a clear training programme, both in and out of the workplace that would provide me with the skills and knowledge to progress further within the engineering industry. Given the support provided by the company I have been able to push myself in the classroom to achieve the very best. This was reflected in being awarded a variety of accolades on both local and national levels during my time here at Crowcon.”  Vikesh Patel

We’re always looking at recruiting apprentices and graduate engineers to support in achieving recognised qualifications from NVQs at Level 2 to BTECs, HNC and in some disciplines, such as finance or purchasing, post graduate or professional certificates.

Home grown talent will be the differentiator of the future. The cost of higher education is making many re-think the automatic study routes. It is no longer necessary to become burdened with a large debt, via full time study, to achieve your potential in the work place. Vocational career paths are finally becoming more widely available, with a multitude of opportunities and development routes.

People Development is at the heart of our business success and working collaboratively to release the wider potential within our business is how Crowcon will continue to go from strength to strength.

Following a successful completion of the 3 year apprenticeship, you could follow a similar path to previous apprenticeships with scope to move into an engineering role after a few years in the Line Technician position. Previous apprentices have taken roles in Test & Verification, Quality Engineering, and Manufacturing Engineering.

After all, why would you take a job, when you can have a career?

Don’t get caught in a tight space!

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) has released a factsheet (29 CFR 1926 Subpart AA) on all the rules and regulations of residential workers in confined spaces. OSHA works to assure the safety and health of all of America’s working people.

This blog highlights what we think are the key points.

Well, how is a confined space defined?

OSHA defines these as

  • has limited entry and exits
  • larger enough for workers to enter
  • not intended for regular occupancy

Confined space sites could be drains, manholes, water mains, sewer systems, crawl spaces, attics, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems.

There are two different variants on confined spaces. Those that contain hazardous conditions and those that do not contain a physical hazard to the individual.

A confined space that contains hazardous conditions could be considered a permit-required space under the new regulations (PRCS). These spaces might be dangerous to the life of the worker if the space hasn’t been investigated, tested and controlled.

Spaces that tend not to be permit-required confined spaces generally do not contain life threatening hazards. Attics, basements and crawl spaces have a smaller risks but still fall into new regulations.

I’m an employer. What do I need to do?

  • Evaluate the space! If hazardous conditions are present, a permit specifying safety measures and names of those permitted in the space must be written before any work can take place.
  • Inform employees! Let your employees know all the facts. Does a workplace contain a confined space? Is this a permit-required space? All workers should be informed of these hazards – these only needs to be a signpost for entry and exit points if required.
  • Protection! Attempt to remove or isolate any hazards that may be present in the space.
  • Have the right equipment! Check out our range of Portables that would help protect your employees from hazardous gases.
  • Train your staff! Workers should be aware of the dangers and understand any hazards in places permits are required.

Still not clear? Don’t worry, the factsheet offers insight and obligations for all kinds of employers.

Under the new standards, the obligation of the employer will depend on what type of employer they are. The controlling contractor is the main point of contact for any information about PRCS on site.

  • Host employer: The employer who owns or manages the property where the construction work is taking place.
  • Controlling contractor: The employer who has overall responsibility for construction at the worksite.
  • Entry employer or Sub Contractor: Any employer who decides that an employee it directs will enter a permit-required confined space.

How are the new regulations different to the previously applied rules?

The guidelines require employers to figure out what confined spaces their employees are working in, what hazards there are and how these can be made safer, develop rescue plans and ensuring staff training.

For all the facts, visit https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3914.pdf