Oxygen Depletion Risks from Nitrogen in Pharmaceutical Processing

Within the air, a normal concentration of oxygen is 21%, while nitrogen makes up 78% of the rest of the atmosphere along with some trace gases. Inert gases such as nitrogen, argon and helium although aren’t toxic, they do not help to support human breathing. These are odourless, colourless and tasteless making them undetectable. An increase in the volume of any other gases that are not oxygen can lead to a circumstance in which individuals may be at risk of asphyxiation which can cause serious injury or even death. This removal of oxygen gas in the air we breathe makes having an oxygen depletion sensor not just useful, but essential to maintaining life.

How is Nitrogen used to control oxygen levels?

Nitrogen (N2) can be used to control levels of oxygen in a laboratory. When carrying out tasks within the pharmaceutical industry, when transferring products or packaging process, nitrogen is used. Nitrogen is used to take oxygen away from the packaging prior to it being sealed, to make certain the product is preserved. As a result of this the need for an oxygen deficiency monitor is very important. Fixed or portable devices have the ability to detect oxygen levels within a laboratory, plant or utility room. Fixed gas detection systems are suitable for monitoring an area or room, whereas a portable gas detector is designed to be worn on the person within your breathing area.

What are the Risks of Oxygen depletion?

There are three main reasons why monitors are needed; it is essential to detect oxygen deficiencies or enrichment as too little oxygen can prevent the human body from functioning leading to the worker losing consciousness. Unless the oxygen level can be restored to a normal level the worker is at risk of potential death. An atmosphere is deficient when the concentration of O2 is less than 19.5%. Consequently, an environment that has too much oxygen in it is equally dangerous as this constitutes a greatly increased risk of fire and explosion, this is considered when the concentration level of O2 is over 23.5%.

In the absence of adequate ventilation, the level of oxygen can be reduced surprisingly quickly by breathing and combustion processes. Oxygen levels may also be depleted due to dilution by other gases such as carbon dioxide (also a toxic gas), nitrogen or helium, and chemical absorption by corrosion processes and similar reactions. Oxygen sensors should be used in environments where any of these potential risks exist. When locating oxygen sensors, consideration needs to be given to the density of the diluting gas and the “breathing” zone (nose level). For example, helium is lighter than air and will displace the oxygen from the ceiling downwards whereas carbon dioxide, being heavier than air, will predominately displace the oxygen below the breathing zone. Ventilation patterns must also be considered when locating sensors.

Oxygen monitors usually provide a first-level alarm when the oxygen concentration has dropped to 19% volume. Most people will begin to behave abnormally when the level reaches 17%, and hence a second alarm is usually set at this threshold. Exposure to atmospheres containing between 10% and 13% oxygen can bring about unconsciousness very rapidly; death comes very quickly if the oxygen level drops below 6% volume. Oxygen sensors are often installed in laboratories where inert gases (e.g., nitrogen) are stored in enclosed areas.

How do Fixed or Portable Devices Detect Oxygen?

Crowcon offer a range of portable monitors; Gas-Pro portable multi gas detector offers detection of up to 5 gases in a compact and rugged solution. It has an easy-to-read top mount display making it easy to use and optimal for confined space gas detection. An optional internal pump, activated with the flow plate, takes the pain out of pre-entry testing and allows Gas-Pro to be worn either in pumped or diffusion modes.

T4 portable 4-in-1 gas detector provides effective protection against oxygen depletion. T4 multi gas detector now comes with improved detection of pentane, hexane and other long chain hydrocarbons. Offering you compliance, robustness and low cost of ownership in a simple to use solution. T4 contains a wide range of powerful features to make everyday use easier and safer.

Crowcon’s fixed detector XgardIQ is an intelligent and versatile fixed detector and transmitter compatible with Crowcon’s full range of sensor technologies. Available fitted with a variety of sensors for fixed flammable, toxic, oxygen or H2S gas detection. Providing analogue 4-20mA and RS-485 Modbus signals as standard, XgardIQ is optionally available with Alarm and Fault relays and HART communications. The 316 stainless steels are available with three M20 or 1/2“NPT cable entries. This device is also (SIL-2) Safety integrity level 2 certified fixed detector.

Keeping the Emergency Services Safe

Emergency Service Personnel encounter gas related risks as part of their jobs. However, immediate evaluation of their surrounds is key upon arrival as well as continuous monitoring whilst in a rescue situation are vital for the health of all those involved.  

What Gases are Present?

Toxic gases like carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are present if there is a fire. Individually these gases are dangerous and even deadly, the two combined is exponentially worse, known as the toxic twins.  

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete burning of carbon-based fuels, including gas, oil, wood, and coal. It is only when fuel does not burn fully that excess CO is produced, which is poisonous. When the excess CO enters the body, it stops the blood from bringing oxygen to cells, tissues, and organs. CO is poisonous as you cannot see it, taste it or smell it but CO can kill quickly without warning.  

Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) is an important industrial chemical and over a million tonnes are produced globally each year. Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) is a colourless or light blue liquid or gas that is extremely flammable. It has a faint bitter almond odour, although this isn’t detectable to everyone.  There are many uses for hydrogen cyanide, primarily in the manufacture of paints, plastics, synthetic fibres (for example nylon) and other chemicals. Hydrogen cyanide and other cyanide compounds have also been used as a fumigant to control pests. With other uses being in metal cleaning, gardening, ore-extraction, electroplating, dying, printing and photography. Sodium and potassium cyanide and other cyanide salts may be made from hydrogen cyanide. 

What are the risks?

These gases are dangerous individually. However, exposure to both combined is even more dangerous, so an adequate CO and HCN gas detector is essential where the toxic twins are found. Usually, visible smoke is a good guide, however the Toxic Twins are both colourless.  Combined these gases are usually found in fires. in which, Firefighters and other Emergency Personnel are trained to look out for CO poisoning in fires. However, due to the increased use of plastics and man-made fibres, HCN can be released at up to 200ppm in domestic and industrial fires. These two gases cause thousands of fire related deaths annually, so needs more consideration in fire gas detection.  

The attendance of HCN in the environment may not always lead to exposure. However, for HCN to cause any adverse health effects, you need to come into contact with it, i.e., breathing, eating, drinking, or through skin or eye contact with it. Following exposure to any chemical, the adverse health effects are dependent on a number of factors, such as the amount to which you are exposed (dose), the way you are exposed, the duration of exposure, the form of the chemical and if you were exposed to any other chemicals. As HCN is very toxic, it can prevent the body from using oxygen properly. Early signs of exposure to HCN include headache, sickness, dizziness, confusion and even drowsiness. Substantial exposure may rapidly lead to unconsciousness, fitting, coma and possibly death. If a substantial exposure is survived, there may be long-term effects from damage to the brain and other nervous system damage. Effects from skin contact require a large surface of the skin in order to be exposed. 

What Products are Available?

For Emergency Service Teams, the use of portable gas detectors is essential. Toxic gases are produced when materials are burnt meaning flammable gases and vapours may be present.  

Our Gas-Pro portable multi gas detector offers detection of up to 5 gases in a compact and rugged solution. It has an easy-to-read top mount display making it easy to use and optimal for confined space gas detection. An optional internal pump, activated with the flow plate, takes the pain out of pre-entry testing and allows Gas-Pro to be worn either in pumped or diffusion modes. In-field pellistor changes for methane, hydrogen, propane, ethane, acetylene (0–100% LEL, with resolution of 1% LEL). By allowing in-field pellistor changes, Gas-Pro detectors give users the flexibility to conveniently test for a range of flammable gases, without needing multiple sensors or detectors. What is more, they can continue to calibrate using existing methane canisters, saving time and money. The gas sensor for hydrogen cyanide has a monitoring measuring range of 0–30 ppm with resolution of 0.1 ppm.  

Tetra 3 portable multi gas monitor can detect and monitor the four most common gases (carbon monoxide, methane, oxygen and hydrogen sulphide), but also an expanded range: ammonia, ozone, sulphur dioxide, H2 filtered CO (for steel plants) and IR carbon dioxide (for safe area use only). 

T4 portable 4-in-1 gas detector provides effective protection against 4 common gas hazards: carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide, flammable gases and oxygen depletion. The T4 multi gas detector now comes with improved detection of pentane, hexane and other long chain hydrocarbons. 

Clip Single Gas Detector (SDG) is an industrial gas detector designed for use in hazardous areas and offers reliable and durable fixed life span monitoring in a compact, lightweight and maintenance-free package. Clip SGD has a 2-year life and is available for hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon monoxide (CO) or oxygen (O2). 

Gasman is a full function device in a compact and lightweight package – perfect for customers who need more sensor options, TWA and data capability. It comes available with long-life O2 sensor, MPS sensor technology.

MPS Sensor provides advanced technology that removes the need to calibrate and provides a ‘True LEL’ for reading for fifteen flammable gases but can detect all flammable gases in a multi-species environment. Many industries and applications use or have as a by product multiple gases within the same environment. This can be challenging for traditional sensor technology which can detect only a single gas that they were calibrated for and can result in inaccurate reading and even false alarms which can halt process or production. The challenges faced in multi gas species environments can be frustrating and counterproductive. Our MPS™ sensor can accurately detect multiple gases at once and instantly identify gas type. Our MPS™ sensor has a on board environmental compensation and does not require a correctional factor. Inaccurate readings and false alarms are a thing of the past.

Crowcon Connect is a gas safety and compliance insight solution that utilises a flexible cloud data service offering actionable insight from detector fleet. This cloud-based software provides a top level view of device utilisation with dashboard showing proportion of devices that are Assigned or Unassigned to an operator, for the specific region or area selected. Fleet Insights provides overview of devices switch on/off, synced or in alarm.

What are the Dangers of Confined Space Entry?

What is Confined Space and is it Classified? 

Confined Space is a global concern. In this blog we are referencing the UK’s Health and Safety Executive’s dedicated documentation, as well as the United States OSHA ones, as these are broadly familiar to other countries own health and safety procedures. 

A Confined Space is a location that is substantially enclosed although not always entirely, and where serious injury can occur from hazardous substances or conditions within the space or nearby such as a lack of oxygen. As they are so dangerous, it has to be noted that any entry to confined spaces must be the only and final option in order to carry out work. Confined Spaces Regulations 1997. Approved Code of Practice, Regulations and guidance is for employees that work in Confined Spaces, those who employ or train such people and those who represent them. 

The Risks and Hazards:

A Confined Space that contains certain hazardous conditions may be considered a permit-required confined space under the standard. Permit-required confined spaces can be immediately dangerous to operator’s lives if they are not properly identified, evaluated, tested and controlled. Permit-required confined space can a defined as a confined space where there is a risk of one (or more) of the following: 

  • Serious injury due to fire or explosion 
  • Loss of consciousness arising from increased body temperature  
  • Loss of consciousness or asphyxiation arising from gas, fume, vapour, or lack of oxygen  
  • Drowning from an increase in the level of a liquid  
  • Asphyxiation arising from a free-flowing solid or being unable to reach a respirable environment due to being trapped by such a free-flowing solid 

These arise from the following hazards: 

  • Flammable substances and oxygen enrichment (read more) 
  • Excessive heat 
  • Toxic gas, fume or vapours 
  • Oxygen deficiency 
  • Ingress or pressure of liquids 
  • Free-flowing solid materials 
  • Other hazards (such as exposure to electricity, loud noise or loss of structural integrity of the space) 

Confined Space Identification

HSE classify Confined Spaces as any place, including any chamber, tank, vat, silo, pit, trench, pipe, sewer, flue, well or other similar space in which, by virtue of its enclosed nature, there arises a reasonably foreseeable specified risk, as outlined above.  

Most Confined Spaces are easy to identify although, identification is sometimes required as a Confined Space is not necessarily be an enclosed on all sides – some, such as vats, silos and ships’ hold, may have open tops or sides. Nor are exclusive to a small and/or difficult to work in space – some, like grain silos and ships’ holds, can be very large. They may not be that difficult to get in or out of – some have several entrances/exits, others have quite large openings or are apparently easy to escape from. Or a place where people do not regularly work – some Confined Spaces (such as those used for spray painting in car repair centres) are used regularly by people in the course of their work 

There may be instances where a space itself may not be defined as a Confined Space, however, while work is ongoing, and until the level of oxygen recovers (or the contaminants have dispersed by ventilating the area), it is classified as a Confined Space. Example scenarios are: welding that would consume some of the available breathable oxygen, a spray booth during paint spraying; using chemicals for cleaning purposes which can add volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or acidic gases, or an area subjected to significant rust which has reduced available oxygen to dangerous levels. 

What are the Rules and Regulations for Employers?

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) have released a factsheet that highlights all the rules and regulations of residential workers in Confined Spaces.  

Under the new standards, the obligation of the employer will depend on what type of employer they are. The controlling contractor is the main point of contact for any information about PRCS on site.  

The Host employer: The employer who owns or manages the property where the construction work is taking place. 

Employer can’t rely solely on the emergency services for rescue. A dedicated service must be ready to act in the event of an emergency.  The arrangements for emergency rescue, required under regulation 5 of the Confined Spaces Regulations, must be suitable and sufficient. If necessary, equipment to enable resuscitation procedures to be carried out should be provided. The arrangements should be in place before any person enters or works in a confined space. 

The Controlling contractor: The employer who has overall responsibility for construction at the worksite. 

 The Entry employer or Sub Contractor: Any employer who decides that an employee it directs will enter a permit-required confined space. 

Employees have the responsibility to raise concern such as helping highlight any potential workplace risks, ensuring that health and safety controls are practical and increasing the level of commitment to working in a safe and healthy way.  

Testing/ Monitoring the Atmosphere:

Prior to entry, the atmosphere within a confined space should be tested to check the oxygen concentration and for the presence of hazardous gas, fume or vapour. Testing should be carried out where knowledge of the confined space (e.g. from information about its previous contents or chemicals used in a previous activity in the space) indicates that the atmosphere might be contaminated or to any extent unsafe to breathe, or where any doubt exists as to the condition of the atmosphere. Testing should also be carried out if the atmosphere is has been previously contaminated and was ventilated as a consequence (HSE Safe Work in Confined Spaces: Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 and Approved Codes of Practice). 

The choice of monitoring and detecting equipment will depend on the circumstances and knowledge of possible contaminants and you may need to take advice from a competent person when deciding on the type that best suits the situation – Crowcon can help with this.  

Monitoring equipment should be in good working order. Testing and calibration may be included in daily operator checks (a response check) where identified as necessary in accordance with our specification.  

Where there is a potential risk of flammable or explosive atmospheres, equipment specifically designed to measure for these will be required and certified Intrinsically Safe. All such monitoring equipment should be specifically suited for use in potentially flammable or explosive atmospheres. Flammable gas monitors must be calibrated for the different gases or vapours which the risk assessment has identified could be present and these may need alternative calibrations for different confined spaces. Get in touch if you require any help 

Testing should be carried out by people who are competent in the practice and aware of the existing standards for the relevant airborne contaminates being measured and are also instructed and trained in the risks involved in carrying out such testing in a confined space. Those carrying out the testing should also be capable of interpreting the results and taking any necessary action. Records should be kept of the results and findings ensuring that readings are taken in the following order: oxygen, flammable and then toxics. 

The atmosphere in a confined space can often be tested from the outside, without the need for entry, by drawing samples through a long probe. Where flexible sample tubing is used, ensure that it does not draw water or is not impeded by kinks, blockages, or blocked or restricted nozzles, in-line filters can help with this. 

What products are Intrinsically Safe and are suitable for Confined Space Safety?

These products are Certified to meet local Intrinsically Safe Standards.  

The Gas-Pro portable multi gas detector offers detection of up to 5 gases in a compact and rugged solution. It has an easy-to-read top mount display making it easy to use and optimal for confined space gas detection. An optional internal pump, activated with the flow plate, takes the pain out of pre-entry testing, and allows Gas-Pro to be worn either in pumped or diffusion modes. 

Gas-Pro TK offers the same gas safety benefits as the regular Gas-Pro, while offering Tank Check mode which can auto-range between %LEL and %Volume for inerting applications. 

T4 portable 4-in-1 gas detector provides effective protection against 4 common gas hazards: carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide, flammable gases, and oxygen depletion. The T4 multi gas detector now comes with improved detection of pentane, hexane, and other long chain hydrocarbons. 

Tetra 3 portable multi gas monitor can detect and monitor the four most common gases (carbon monoxide, methane, oxygen, and hydrogen sulphide), but also an expanded range: ammonia, ozone, sulphur dioxide, H2 filtered CO (for steel plants). 

Why it’s Important to Measure Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)?

In the EU and UK it is now obligatory for all new domestic heating and plumbing products (rated up to 400 kw) to comply with maximum nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission levels. This is line with a great deal of international regulation: NOx emissions are controlled by law or regulation in many countries (including the US, Canada, Australia and Singapore) and these may vary further by sector (maritime and automotive may have their own specific codes and limits, for example). 

The regulation of NOx required because this gas is a major pollutant, associated with thousands of deaths worldwide through its effects – both direct and indirect – on human health. It has been associated with asthma in children, lung inflammation and a host of other respiratory disorders, as well as cardiovascular damage. NOx is dangerous to animals, plants and ecosystems and is a major constituent of acid rain and smog. 

Despite its singular name, NOx is actually a collective term for nitrogen oxides – a family of highly reactive and poisonous gases – which are produced when fossil fuels are burned. Although NOx pollution is a global problem, large cities are particularly badly affected through vehicle exhaust fumes and heating system emissions; around a third of any large city’s NOx pollution comes from heating. In addition, nitrogen dioxide reacts in sunlight with other gases (such as volatile organic compounds) to generate ozone, which is a greenhouse gas.  

Why measure NOx? 

Since NOx emissions are increasingly regulated, they must be measured to ensure compliance with relevant directives. The measurement of NOx from boilers and other domestic appliances is also carried out to check that these are running safely, and to ensure the owner/operator and those around them are not being exposed to excessive NOx. 

Measuring NOx with a flue gas analyser/combustion analyzer 

Sprint ProAs well as having to meet the demands of regulation, the HVAC sector recognises the growing importance of NOx measurement due to the worldwide focus on sustainability and green issues, and awareness of its harmful effects on health. This is reflected in a growing market for combustion analyzers that calculate NOx (e.g. the Sprint Pro 5 and the Sprint Pro 6).  

In the short to medium term, demand for NOx measurement seems likely to increase; the reduction of NOx emissions is a key component of sustainability policies worldwide and HVAC engineers and designers are prioritising the design of better, cleaner forms of heating (which will have to be benchmarked, verified and maintained).  

Over time, highly efficient, ultra-low-NOx systems are likely to dominate, and the measurement of NOx will therefore become an increasingly important parameter and a more prominent part of day-to-day work in the HVAC sector. 

Our Sprint Pro 5 and 6 models come complete with dedicated NO sensors allowing for a range of NO and NOx measurement options

What is a Flame Detector and How Does it Work?

What is a Flame Detector? 

A flame detector is a type of sensor that can detect and respond to the presence of a flame. These detectors have the ability to identify smokeless liquid and smoke that can create open fire. For example, in boiler furnaces flame detectors are widely used, as a flame detector can detect heat, smoke, and fire. These devices can also detect fire according to the air temperature and air movement. The flame detectors use Ultraviolet (UV) or Infra-Red (IR) technology to identify flames meaning they can alert to flames in less than a second. The flame detector would respond to the detection of a flame according to its installation, it could for example sound an alarm, deactivate the fuel line, or even activate a fire suppression system. 

Where would you find these Detectors? 

  • Industrial warehouses
  • Chemical production plants 
  • Chemical stores 
  • Petrol storage and pump stations 
  • Arc welding workshops 
  • Power plants 
  • Transformer stations 
  • Underground tunnels 
  • Motor testbeds 
  • Wood stores 

What are the Components of a Flame Monitoring System and does it work?

The major component of a flame detector system is the detector itself. It comprises of photoelectric detective circuits, signal conditioning circuits, microprocessor systems, I/O circuits, and wind cooling systems. The sensors in the flame detector will detect the radiation that is sent by the flame, the photoelectric converts the radiant intensity signal of the flame to a relevant voltage signal and this signal would be processed in a single chip microcomputer and converted into a desired output. 

How many types of Flame Detectors are there and how do they work? 

There are 3 different types of flame detector: Ultra-Violet, Infra-Red and a combination of them both Ultra-Violet-Infra-Red 

Ultra-Violet (UV) 

This type of flame detector works by detecting the UV radiation at the point of ignition. Almost entirely all fires emit UV radiations, so in case of the flame, the sensor would become aware of it and produce a series of the pulses that are converted by detector electronics into an alarm output.  

There are advantages and disadvantages of a UV detector. Advantages of UV detector include High-speed response, the ability to respond to hydrocarbon, hydrogen, and metal fires. On the other hand, the disadvantages of UV detectors include responding to welding at long range, and they may also respond to lightning, sparks, etc. 

Infra-Red (IR) 

The infra-red flame detector works by checking the infrared spectral band for certain ornamentation that hot gases release. However, this type of device requires a flickering motion of the flame. The IR radiation may not only be emitted by flames, but may also be radiated from ovens, lamps, etc. Therefore, there is a higher risk for a false alarm 

UV-IR 

This type of detector is capable to detect both the UV and IR radiations, so it possesses both the UV and IR sensor. The two sensors individually operate the same as those described, but supplementary both circuitry processes signals are present due to there being both sensors. Consequently, the combined detector has better false alarm rejection capability than the individual UV or IR detector. 

Although there are advantages and disadvantages of UV/IR flame detector. Advantages include High-speed response and are immune to the false alarm. On the other hand, the disadvantages of UV/IR flame detector include the issue that it cannot be used for non-carbon fires as well as only being able to detect fires that emits both the UV/IR radiation not individually.  

Are any products available? 

The FGard IR3 delivers superior performance in the detection of hydrocarbon fires. The device utilises the latest IR flame detection algorithms to ensure maximum false alarm immunity. The detector has been independently tested to demonstrate it can detect a hydrocarbon fuel pan fire at nearly 200 feet in less than 5 seconds. The FGuard IR3 has a multi spectrum IR allowing for 60 metre flame detection range. That can detect all Hydrocarbon fires with no condensation forming on the window, improving reliability and performance across temperature. This product has fast detection time responding in less than 5 seconds to 0.1m² fire at 60 metres.  

Crowcon offers a range of infra-red (IR) and ultra-violet (UV) based flame detectors for quickly detecting flames at a distance. Depending on model, this includes a variety of gas and fuel fires including those generated from hydrocarbons, hydrogen, metals, inorganic and hydroxyl sources.

Reset & Recalibrate – A Guide to FGA Calibration

Ensuring your flue gas analyser (FGA) is regularly maintained goes without saying, however the hows and whys take a little more digging into. This article breaks down the calibration process and highlights handy tips and tricks for maintenance and best practice. 

 

The Act of Calibration 

Calibrating an FGA involves checking the sensors to ensure accurate measurement of a known concentration of certified calibration gas. To do this, the reading needs to be adjusted to match the gas concentration through an initial sensor calibration of the new or existing unit.

Next up is a calibration drift – this is done using existing instruments to bring the reading back after the drift occurs. Measuring the amount of drift in the gauge is a chance to see how far into inaccurate territory it has moved, and rule out measurement errors moving forward. 

 

Sprint Pro Calibration

Regularity is key

Sensors degrade over time with each sensor having a different life span of optimum operation, whether it is an electrochemical, catalytic bead and infra-red sensors. Regular calibration raises the gain levels and brings the sensor back in line to avoid dangerous incorrect readings. 

Once the sensor reaches a certain point it cannot be brought back into the correct position and this is the time when a new sensor needs to be installed. 

 

Explaining the calibration procedure 

The first step of the process is to set the device to calibration mode. This feeds a test gas of a known concentration onto the sensors to see how they respond. The gain levels are adjusted within the sensor to match the readings to the concentration fed in whilst mitigating drop off. 

The new settings are locked into the device’s firmware and a calibration report is produced, creating a PASS or FAIL result. 

Best Practice Tips and Tricks

Here are some best practice recommendations to help you maintain your FGA.

  • Clear out the water trap regularly – moisture is a by-product of combustion and can get sucked into the FGA when a test is undertaken. Water damage is the primary cause of damage in flue gas analysers, so it is imperative to check, empty and replace the unit’s inbuilt water traps and filters to protect from this.
  • Purge the device in clean air before powering down – noxious gases are drawn from the flue and passed over the sensors to gain a reading. After a test is completed and the system closes down some of that gas remains trapped inside. This can cause corrosion damage and shorten the life of the unit, so purging in clean air prior to shut down is a must.
  • Take inside to protect from cold weather conditions – to lessen the chances of condensation build up and water damage within your FGA make sure to remove the unit from your van overnight. This also reduces the risk of theft. 
  • Use approved chargers with outputs tailored for target device – non approved chargers cause damage to the battery and lessen charge retention, or even impairment to the battery and IC chips of the device itself.  
  • Check the devices’ probes and connector pipes – any splits or cracks in the rubber house will cause incorrect readings. Performing periodic checks on your hoses to ensure they are in good operating condition is a useful habit. 

 

All-Inclusive Service Options 

You have multiple options when sending your device off for it’s annual service and calibration:

Send it direct to us

Crowcon’s innovative Autocal jig system manages the end to end calibration process for Sprint Pro FGA’s. An out-of-calibration unit leads to errors in the combustion reports produced and could disrupt your day to day. 

Autocal servicing is easy. Simply bring your FGA to one of the DPD drop off locations, your unit will be inspected, tested and calibrated within two days and returned to you using DPD’s express return trackable option.

For more information please check out https://shop.crowcon.com/

Send it to your local store

Drop your device in to your local trade counter or specialist servicing centre at a time convenient to you and they will work with us to facilitate the annual calibration.
They will contact you to come and collect your device once the calibration is completed.

What are Area Monitors and how do I use one?

Outdoor leaks from storage tanks or pipelines are a particular kind of hazard. With many outdoor areas not housing permanent, fixed detectors. If you’re relying solely on a personal monitor, by the time it alarms, there is a possibility that you may be engulfed in a hazardous gas cloud. Therefore, a temporary early warning system between you and the potential source of a gas hazard has the ability to alert you to trouble coming your way.

What are Area monitors and where would they be used? 

Temporary Area monitors are usually rugged units that can be placed, stand-alone to monitor a small area or multiple units can be linked together via wired or wireless networking to create a perimeter defence of a larger area. Area Monitor devices help safety personnel protect their workers from gas hazards in situations, in addition to—or sometimes in substitution of—personal, portable gas monitors used as Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Area monitors can be positioned to produce a guard between potential hazards and workers, to notify what they are heading into or what potential hazards are coming their way.  This occurs most often when work takes place outside of normal operations where the risks are higher and/or different such as special projects, construction, maintenance, shutdowns, temporary sites or rigs, etc. In this way, they can be used to form a barrier around a tank or along a portion of pipeline close to the location of work being carried out. Portable units can be easily deployed to provide fence line monitoring during maintenance, shutdowns or turnaround. The objective is to ensure that the devices are not so far apart that gas could pass between them undetected.  If a fixed system is being taken offline for maintenance a network of fast to deploy temporary area monitors is an ideal option to use in place of the fixed system until maintenance is complete and the system is brought back online. 

How do you use one? 

Units can be connected by cables. However wireless connection between individual area monitors is also available and avoids introducing a potential trip hazard. This could add significantly to an already risky task, for example, if working at height. Some wireless systems create a “self-healing” mesh network. In this case, should the wireless connection between two devices weaken, the network will automatically re-route communications via alternate enabled devices, creating a mesh type network allowing a more robust and efficient wireless network. 

The benefit from a wireless connection is that it is practical to use repeaters or extra units to relay alerts directly to the control room. Besides the gas alert signals, some detectors will transmit other faults i.e., the loss of signal, or “battery low” alarm. This programmed alert mode is often conveyed by a specific sequence of signals, such as the beacon and lights will flash for 3 seconds followed by 5 second pause which will be repeated until an operator acknowledges the alarm. 

Wireless temporary area monitoring allows for quick deployment whilst ensuring a high level of protection for workers in circumstances where the risks are tricky to monitor. Personnel working at height can be alerted to any gas hazards on the ground, or vice versa and the same alarm can be relayed to the control room by having an additional detector in the control room. The audible alarm is significantly louder than a standard portable and light sequence is brighter and flashes faster on the Detective+ unit when gas is detected. , whilst the sequence on other units in the network is slower. This differentiates the unit nearest the gas from the rest, so everyone is alerted to the location of the hazard. In contrary, to the benefits of this products, the configuration tends to be straightforward without additional hardware. The batteries in Detective+ are larger and last longer than conventional portables. All in all, these units offer a simple yet effective solution for protecting workers outside of normal operations. 

Crowcon’s Detective+ is ideal for temporary area monitoring while workers carry out a repair. Detective+ is portable and can be easily deployed to provide fence line monitoring during shutdowns or turnaround. If working on a cooling tower fin fan, Detective+ units are connected to other units (up to 70m away) via Detective Wireless modules, which eliminate the need for cabling between units. Detective Wireless uses the proven RICOCHET mesh network. In the unusual circumstance that the wireless connection between two devices weaken, the network will automatically re-route communications via alternate RICOCHET enabled devices and so ‘self-heal’. In essence, this creates a mesh type network allowing a more robust and efficient wireless network.

Read more about Area Monitoring  

Why Do I Need a Personal CO Monitor?

What is CO? 

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete burning of carbon-based fuels, including gas, oil, wood, and coal. It is only when fuel does not burn fully that excess CO is produced, which is poisonous. When the excess CO enters the body, it stops the blood from bringing oxygen to cells, tissues, and organs. CO is poisonous as you cannot see it, taste it or smell it but CO can kill quickly without warning. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) statistics show every year around 15 people die from CO poisoning caused by gas appliances and flues that have not been correctly installed, maintained or those that are poorly ventilated. Although some levels that present do not kill but can cause serious harm to health if breathed in over a prolonged period. with extreme cases causing paralysis and brain damage because of prolonged exposure to CO. Therefore, understanding the danger of CO poisoning as well as educating the public to take appropriate precautions could inevitably reduce this risk.  

Where is CO present and why is it dangerous? 

CO is present in several different industries, such as manufacturing, electricity supply, coal and metal mining, food manufacturing, oil and gas, production of chemicals and petroleum refining to name a few.  

The effects of CO poisoning, can include breathlessness, chest pain, seizures and loss of consciousness which may lead to death as well as physical problems that can occur, depending on how much CO is in the air. For example: 

CO volume (parts per million (ppm)  Physical Effects 
200 ppm  Headache in 2–3 hours 
400 ppm  Headache and nausea in 1–2 hours, life threatening within 3 hours. 
800 ppm  Can cause seizures, severe headaches and vomiting in under an hour, unconsciousness within 2 hours. 
1,500 ppm  Can cause dizziness, nausea, and unconsciousness in under 20 minutes; death within 1 hour 
6,400 ppm  Can cause unconsciousness after two to three breaths: death within 15 minutes 

 Around 10 to 15% of people who obtain serve CO poisoning go on to develop long-term complications. These include brain damage, vision and hearing loss, Parkinson’s disease, and coronary heart disease.  

How does a CO Monitor help with safety and compliance and if so, what products are available? 

Any operators who are working on commercial installations or domestic application in a home are required to be registered with a relevant association, i.e., Gas safe register, Heating equipment testing and approval scheme (HETAS) – solid fuel applications and Oil firing technical association (OFTEC) – oil appliances. Therefore, personal CO monitors offer the highest quality and portability CO gas detection to protect the operator at work. 

Crowcon Clip SGD is designed for use in hazardous areas whilst offering reliable and durable fixed life span monitoring in a compact, lightweight and maintenance free device. Clip SGD has a 2-year life and is available for hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon monoxide (CO) or oxygen (O2). The Clip SDG personal gas detector is designed to withstand the harshest industrial working conditions and delivers industry leading alarm time, changeable alarm levels and event logging as well as user-friendly bump test and calibration solutions. 

Crowcon Gasman with specialist CO sensor is a rugged, compact single gas detector, designed for use in the toughest environments. Its compact and lightweight design makes it the ideal choice for industrial gas detection. Weighing just 130g, it is extremely durable, with high impact resistance and dust/water ingress protection, loud 95 dB alarms, a vivid red/ blue visual warning, single-button control and an easy-to-read, backlit LCD display to ensure clear viewing of gas level readings, alarm conditions and battery life. Data and event logging are available as standard, and there is a built-in 30-day advance warning when calibration is due. 

Why do Gas Certifications matter?

Who Classifies Gas Certificates? 

One of the most significant concerns in an industrial workplace is the potential risk of fire or/and explosion. However, there are directives that set standards in which aim to control explosive atmospheres. ATEX (ATmosphere EXplosibles) is the name commonly given to two European Directives for controlling explosive environments. IECEX (International Electrotechnical Commission for Explosive Atmospheres) is the certification that all electrical devices are required to go through by the International Electrotechnical Commission to ensure that they meet a minimum safety standard that will determine whether they can be used in hazardous or explosive environments. For the US Underwriters Limited (UL) is a safety organisation who provide products that are to be sold into the marketplace with authentication that are safe for use. Similarly, the Canadian National Standards (CSA) provide products placed in the market or put into service with a safety certification displaying that they are fit for use. However, The Safety integrity level (SIL) is the level of risk-reduction provided by a safety function, or to specify a target level of risk reduction. The certificates provided by both ATEX and Sil are what operators rely on in order to prevent fires and explosions but also to keep all those in industrial workplaces safe. 

Workplace Hazards 

There are too many workplace hazards to count, however, a hazardous location is stated as an area in which combustible or flammable substance is or has the potential to be in attendance. Hazardous locations are specified by the type of combustible hazard and the probability of it being present. These gradings are determined by classifications set by the National Electric Code (NEC) in the United States and the International Electrochemical Commissions (IEC) internationally. These are defined in two ways; either Class/Division system in Northern America or Zones/Groups internationally.  

Class and Divisions 

Divisions: 

Division 1: There is a likelihood the hazard is present during normal operating conditions 

Division 2: The hazard is present during abnormal conditions (i.e., In the event of a spill or leak)  

Classes: 

Class 1Gas 

Class 2Dust 

Class 3Fibres  

Zones and Groups  

Zones: identify the possibility for a hazard to be present 

Zone 0: The hazard is in attendance continuously and for a prolonged period of time 

Zone 1: There is a chance that the hazard is in attendance but at normal operating  conditions 

Zone 2: The hazard is not likely in attendance in normal conditions for an extended period of  time 

Groups: Identify the particular type of hazard 

Group 1: Mining Industry hazard specific 

Group 2: Have a group identifying the hazard is gaseous in nature 

A: Methane, propane, and other similar gases 

B: Ethylene and gases or those that pose a similar hazard risk 

C: Acetylene, hydrogen or similar hazards 

Group 3: Dusts and other groups by size of the particle and type of material 

Understanding the Certification Logos 

The logos located on the equipment identify who or what association has tested and assessed the equipment, ensuring its safety based on set standards. Many associations will certify equipment as being explosion proof, clarifying that any ignition will be contained within the device and will not pose a threat to the outside environment. This action is intrinsically safe, thereby stopping the device from creating a spark that may lead to an explosion in a hazardous environment.  

Why Certificates are important 

Although it is hard to identify all classification, to ensure that equipment has been certified safe, it is essential to look for familiar logos as a primary sign the equipment is safe and won’t pose a threat to the environment. Certificates allow for easy visual for the operator to not only ensure that the devices work correctly but also protect all those in the hazardous environment its set to measure.  

What do you need to know about Hydrogen?

Hydrogen is one of the most abundant sources of gas contributing approximately 75% of the gas on our Earth. Hydrogen is found in various things including light, water, air, plants, and animals, however, is often combined with other chemicals, the most familiar combination is with oxygen to make water.

What is Hydrogen and what are its benefits?

Historically, Hydrogen Gas has been used as a component for rocket fuel as well as in gas turbines to produce electricity or to burn to run combustion engines for the power generation. In the Oil and Gas Industry, excess hydrogen from the catalytic reforming of naphtha has been used as fuel for other unit operations.

Hydrogen Gas is a colourless, odourless, and tasteless gas which is lighter than air. As it is lighter than air this means it float higher than our atmosphere, meaning it is not naturally found, but instead must be created. This is done by separating it from other elements and collecting the vapour. Electrolysis is completed by taking liquid usually water and separating this from the chemicals found within it. In water the hydrogen and oxygen molecules separate leaving two bonds of hydrogen and one bond of oxygen. The hydrogen atoms form a gas which is captured and stored until required, the oxygen atoms are released into the air as there is no further use. The hydrogen gas that is produced leaves no damaging impact on the environment, leading to many experts believing this is the future.

Why Hydrogen is seen as a cleaner future.

In order to make energy a fuel that is a chemical is burnt. This process usually means chemical bonds are broken and combined with oxygen. Traditionally, Methane gas has been the natural gas of choice with 85% of homes and 40% of the UK’s electricity depending on gas. Methane was seen as a cleaner gas compared to coal, however, when its burnt carbon dioxide is produced as a waste product thereby contributing to climate change. Hydrogen Gas when burnt only produces water vapour as a waste product, this being already a natural resource.

The difference between blue hydrogen and green hydrogen.

Blue hydrogen is produced from non-renewable energy sources, through two methods either Steam or Autothermal. Steam Methane reformation is the most common when producing hydrogen in bulk. This method uses a reformer which produces steam at a high temperature and pressure and is combined with methane and a nickel catalyst to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Autothermal reforming uses the same process however, with oxygen and carbon dioxide. Both methods produce carbon as a by-product.

Green hydrogen is produced using electricity to power an electrolyser that separates hydrogen from the water molecule producing oxygen as a by-product. It also allows for excess electricity to electrolysis to create hydrogen gas that can be stored for the future.

The characteristics that hydrogen presents, has set a precedence for the future of energy. The UK Government have seen this a way forward for a greener way of living and have set a target for a thriving hydrogen economy by 2030. Whilst Japan, South Korea and China are on course to make significant progress in hydrogen development with targets set to match the UK for 2030. Similarly, the European Commission have presented a hydrogen strategy in which hydrogen could provide for 24% of the world’s energy by 2050.